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從“請銘”與“撰銘”探究宋代社會的倫常關係

Research of Human Relationships in Sung Society on the Behaviors of "Asking Someone to Write Epitaphs" (請銘) and "Writing Epitaphs" (撰銘)

Abstracts


本文的宗旨,擬通過對墓誌寫作的請銘過程,以及墓主臨終託付他人撰銘的情況,來探究宋代社會倫常關係的表現。本文將焦點放到「請銘」和「撰銘」的內容上,以文本取向來觀察墓主的人際關係。「請銘」是整個墓誌書寫活動的前置作業,請銘的緣由與過程,其實提供了一些比墓主生平更為具體而可靠的資料,當宋人面臨生死大事的關鍵時刻,墓主的臨終託付,或是門人弟子的請銘之舉,蘊含了他們彼此之間最為看重的一段情感與關係,有時是墓主與撰銘者、請銘者與撰銘者、甚至是墓主與請銘者等,這些關係的錯綜交結,反映出社會倫常的秩序結構。 這種反映社會倫常秩序的觀點,說明了墓誌銘的社會性功能,同時也增補了墓誌銘原先的宗教性功能,宋代墓誌文獻的紀錄,不僅說明了社會的喪葬文化,也同時展現出社會倫常的秩序及其社會性。

Keywords

墓誌銘 請銘 撰銘 人倫關係

Parallel abstracts


The aim of the article is to research human relationships in Sung society on the processes of ”writing epitaphs” (撰銘) and ”asking someone to write epitaphs” (請銘) before departed die. The article surveys relationship of departed through the description of epitaphs. ”Asking someone to write epitaphs” is the preparatory assignment of whole writing activity. In fact, the reason and process of the preparatory assignment comprehend more concrete and reliable material. When people in Sung dynasty confront the crux of doomsday, their behavior frequently responds their most important feelings and relationships each other. Sometimes the most important feeling and relationship are between departed and writer, asker and writer, even departed and asker. We could comprehend that the complicated relationship responds the order and construction of society. The standpoint stresses the social function of epitaphs and improves religious function. The descriptions epitaphs not only comprehend culture of funeral but also show the order of relationships in the society.

References


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