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早期耶穌會士與《道德經》翻譯:馬若瑟、聶若望與韓國英對「夷」、「希」、「微」與「三一」的討論

The Early Jesuits and the Translation of Daodejing: The Trigrammaton Yi-Hi-Wei and the Trinity in Prémare, Noëlas, and Cibot

Abstracts


本文探索十七、十八世紀之間,耶穌會士對中國道家和《道德經》翻譯與詮釋的進程,同時簡單討論西方首見的完整譯本及其所致力於會通「最神聖三一」與「天主降生」兩個主要教義的內容與脈絡。文章主要分三個部分:首先,從文獻來觀察整理自利瑪竇(Matteo Ricci, 1552-1610)和龍華民(Niccolò Longobardo, 1559-1654)以來對中國道教和道家的論述,到他們轉向關注道家經典《道德經》的進程。第二部分介紹西方首見的《道德經》完整譯本,包括譯者歸屬與文本描述。第三部分試圖根據能掌握到的現存文獻,擷取出其中最受關注的「道」、「三一」與「夷」、「希」、「微」等關鍵概念,透過比較分析聶若望(Jean-François Noëlas, 1669-1740)與馬若瑟(Joseph-Henri de Prémare, 1666-1736),以及承先啟後的韓國英(Pierre-Martial Cibot, 1727-1780)的論述,試圖理解其翻譯與詮釋的面向和發展脈絡。

Parallel abstracts


This paper explores the Jesuits' contribution to the translation of Daodejing in the early modern period. The authors, in the first part, trace the development of the Jesuits' discussions about Daoism and find that, as early as Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) and Niccolò Longobardo (1559-1654), Daoism was introduced to European readers. Among the literatures concerning China in the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries, Longobardo was the first to mention the golden passage of Daoism concerning the "trinity." In the second part of this paper, the authors deal with the first available Western translation of Daodejing, by Jean-François Noëlas (1669-1740), a colleague of the figurist Jesuit Joseph-Henri de Prémare (1666-1736), in the 1720's. Both of them claimed that, according to Daodejing, the doctrines about the revelation of the triune God and of the Incarnation were recorded in Daodejing and thus already known to the ancient Chinese. Lastly, by comparing the figurist Jesuit writings of Prémare, Noëlas, and Pierre-Martial Cibot (1727-1780), the authors try to clarify the different interpretations of Dao, "trinity," and the Chinese Trigrammaton Yi-Hi-Wei, which were the crucial and influential concepts of Daoism that drew academic attention later in European intellectual communities.

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