Title

從比較共產主義看中共百年

Translated Titles

Centennial of the CCP: A Perspective of Comparative Communism

DOI

10.6229/CPSR.202106_(71).0001

Authors

吳玉山(Yu-Shan Wu)

Key Words

中共建黨百年 ; 中國研究 ; 比較共產主義 ; 比較威權主義 ; Centennial of the CCP ; Chinese Studies ; Comparative Authoritarianism ; Comparative Communism

PublicationName

政治學報

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

71期(2021 / 06 / 01)

Page #

1 - 31

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

今年(2021)中國共產黨迎來百歲黨慶,在這一個世紀當中最重大的發展當然就是中共在1949年的建政,成立了中華人民共和國。我們今日討論中共百年,焦點自然是在於此一共黨國家如何能持續存在與發展,甚至與美國比肩,而成為世界兩強之一,而其體制又是否有變異的可能。本文的重點在於檢視政治學及其相關研究如何從理論的角度來瞭解1949年以後的中國大陸,探討中國研究與比較共產主義之間的關係,指出理論研究經常落於形勢變遷之後,流於解釋已經發生的歷史,而無法關注到當下正在進行的趨勢與未來可能出現的巨變。對於中國的研究,一開始過於強調其集體性(共產政權),在蘇東巨變之後又相反地強調其特異性(中國國別研究),或是其一般性(威權政治),而忽視了其區域性(現有共產政權集中於東亞區域)與貫時性(與歷史共產主義國家的可比性與理論的共通性)。在蘇東共產政權崩解後式微的比較共產主義在此卻正可以產生重大的學術貢獻,其意義主要表現在兩個方面:一個是提供概念框架與關鍵變項;一個是提供跨時與現實的經驗案例。如能喚回比較共產主義,重拾其理論眼光,將對於今日中國政治的理解與未來穩定性的預判具有重大助益。

English Abstract

In 2021 the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) celebrates its centennial. The most significant landmark along its development path in the past one hundred years is obviously the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. In Taiwan, the focus of our discussion naturally falls on how the party-state could continue to exist and develop into a superpower that rivals the United States, and what are the prospects of its transition into other forms of political system. The paper reviews how political science and other related disciplines study and theorize the politics of mainland China, and explores into the relation between China studies and comparative communism. It points out that theories in the field generally fall behind development on the ground, fail to capture ongoing trend and sense the possibilities of monumental changes ahead. They are thus relegated to explaining what has happened afterwards. The study of Chinese politics was originally defined by its organizational origins (communist system) without providing an explanation of regime dynamism, while after the collapse of the Soviet Union and European communism it has become overly concentrated on its uniqueness (Chinese studies), or its general, nondemocratic property (authoritarianism), at the expense of its regional nature (most of the existing communist regimes are in East and Southeast Asia) and its trans-temporal quality (commonality and comparability with historical communist regimes). At this point, to bring back comparative communism that has been on relative decline since the breakdown of the European communist regimes may serve two purposes: provide conceptual framework and identify key variables, and offer historical and existing empirical cases. The utilization of the theoretical resources of comparative communism will go a long way toward understanding Chinese politics and assessing the stability of the party-state.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 政治學