Title

女子體操選手的體重期望落差、身體形象知覺與飲食態度之關係研究

Translated Titles

Differences in Desired Weight, Body Image, and Eating Attitudes among Elite Female Gymnasts

DOI

10.5297/ser.200410_6(3).0009

Authors

葉素汝(Suh-Ruu Yeh);盧俊宏(Frank Jing-Horng Lu)

Key Words

女子體操選手 ; 體重期望落差 ; 身體形象知覺 ; 飲食態度 ; female gymnasts ; difference in desired weight ; body image ; eating attitude

PublicationName

大專體育學刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

6卷3期(2004 / 10 / 31)

Page #

105 - 116

Content Language

繁體中文;英文

Chinese Abstract

本研究主要目的在探討女子體操選手的體重期望落差、實際體型與期望體型,以及身體形象知覺與飲食態度的差異和相關。本研究以92年全運會55位女子體操選手為受試對象,平均年齡為15.93±3.66歲。本研究使用「個人的基本資料問卷」、「身體形象量表」、「飲食態度量表」等三種研究工具,經描述統計、卡方檢定(χ^2)、獨立樣本t考驗以及皮爾森積差相關分析,所得結果如下:一、女子體操選手有著明顯的體重期望落差,且實際體型與期望體型具有顯著差異。二、韻律體操選手對瘦的渴望高於競技體操選手。三、競技體操選手與韻律體操選手的身體形象知覺沒有顯著差異,但兩者對自己的身體形象皆不滿意。四、競技體操選手與韻律體操選手的飲食態度沒有顯著差異,但兩組體操選手有著明顯的飲食失常。五、女子體操選手的身體形象知覺與飲食態度沒有相關。本研究發現大抵支持過去相關文獻,但女子體操選手的身體形象知覺與飲食態度沒有相關,不支持Garner、Garfinkel和Bonato(1987)預測,但支持Walsh、Speed和Morris(2003)及Zigler、Khoo、Sherrb、Nelson、Larson和Drewnowski(1998)之研究。

English Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of body image, desired body weight and body shape, and eating attitudes among elite female gymnasts. Participants included 55 female gymnasts who participated in the 2003 Taiwan Games. After gaining permission from the gymnasts' coaches, participants signed consent forms and completed a demographic data questionnaire, a Multidimensional Body-Self Relation Questionnaire (MBSRQ), and an Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) (Garner & Garfinkel, 1979). Chi-square revealed significant differences between participants' real body weight and shape and desired body weight and shape. Also, an independent t-test revealed that in comparison with competitive gymnasts, rhythmic gymnasts desired to be thinner. All the gymnasts were dissatified with their body shape, but there was no significant difference between the rhythmic gymnasts and the competitive gymnasts. Rhythmic gymnasts and competitive gymnasts had no differences in eating attitudes but they had significant eating disorders as compared to the norm. Moreover, correlation analyses found there was no significant correlation between participants' body shape and eating attitudes.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 體育學
Reference
  1. Brown, T. A.,Cash. T. F.,Mikulka, P. J.(1990).Attitudinal body image assessment: Factor analysis of the Body Self Relations Questionnaire.Journal of Personality Assessment,55,135-144.
  2. Davis, C.,Cowles, M.(1989).A comparison of weight and diet concerns and personality factors among female athletes and non-athletes.Journal of Psychosomatic Research,33(5),527-536.
  3. Deurenberg-Yap, M.,Yian, T. B.,Kai, C. S.,Deurenberg, P.,Staveren, W. A.(1999).Manifestation of cardiovascular risk factor at low levels of body mass index and waist-tohip ratio in Singaporean Chinese.Asia Pacific Journal of Clinic Nutrition,8(3),177-183.
  4. Freeson, P. S.,Mihevic, P. M,Loucks, A. B.,Girandola, R. N.(1983).Physique, body composition, and psychological characteristics of competitive female body builders.The Physician and Sport Medicine,11(5),85-93.
  5. Garner, D. M.,Garfinkel, P. E.(1979).The eating attitudes test: An index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa.Psychological Medicine,9,273-279.
  6. Garner, D. M.,Garfinkel, P. E.,Bonato, D. O.(1987).Body image measurement in eating disorders.Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine,17,119-133.
  7. Garner, D. M.,Olmated, M. P.,Bohr, Y.,Garfinkel, P. E.(1982).The eating attitudes test: Psychometric feature and clinical correlates.Psychological Medicine,12,871-878.
  8. Gill, L. D.(2000).Psychological dynamics of sport and Eexercise.Champaign, IL:Human Kinetics.
  9. Gould, D.,Jackson, S. A.,Finch, L.(1993).Sources of stress in national champion figure skaters.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology,15,134-159.
  10. Gray, S. H.(1977).Social aspects of body-image: Perception of normalcy of weight and affect of college undergraduates.Perceptual and Motor Skills,45,1035-1040.
  11. Hart, E. A.,Leary, M. R.,Rejeski, W. J.(1989).The measurement of social physique anxiety.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology,11,94-104.
  12. Hueneman, R.,Shapiro, L. R.,Hampton, M. C.,Mitchell, B. W.(1966).A longitudinal study of gross body composition and body confrontation and their association with food and activity in a teen-age population.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,18,325.
  13. Kolb, L. C.,S. Arieti(Ed.)(1959).Disturbance of body image.American handbook of psychiatry,1,749-769.
  14. MacGregor, F. C.,Abel, T. M.,Lauer, E.,Weissman, S.(1953).Facial deformities and plastic surgery: A psychological study.Springfield, IL:C. C. Thomas.
  15. Marsh, H. W.(1996).Construct validity of physical self-description questionnaire responses: Relations to external criteria.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology,18,111-113.
  16. Miller, T. M.,Linke, J. G.,Linke, R. A.(1980).Survey on body image, weight and diet of college students.Journal of American Dietetic Association,77,561-566.
  17. Neumaerker, K.,Bettle, N.,Neumaerker, U.,Bettle, O.(2000).Age and gender related psychological characteristic of adolescent ballet dancers.Psychopathology,33(3),137-142.
  18. O''Connor, P. J.,Lewis, R. D.,Kirchner, E. M.,Cook, D. B.(1996).Eating disorder symptomatology in former female college gymnasts: Relations with body composition.The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,64(3),840-843.
  19. Rosen, L. W.,Hough, D. O.(1988).Pathogenic weight-control behavior in female college gymnasts.The Physician and Sport Medicine,16(9),141-144.
  20. Schilder, P.(1935).The image and appearance of the human body.Lodon:Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co..
  21. Schonfeld, W. A.(1962).Gynecomastia in adolescence: Effect on body image and personality adaptation.Psychosomatic Medicine,24,379-389.
  22. Striegel-Moore, R. H.,Connor-Greene, P. A.,Shime, S.(1991).School milieu characteristics and disordered eating in high school gradustes.International Journal of Eating Disorders,10,187-192.
  23. Sundgot, B. J.(1993).Prevalence of eating disorders in elite female athletes.International Journal of S port Nutrition,3,29-40.
  24. Tofler, I. R.,Stryer, B. K.,Micheli, L. J.,Herman, L. R.(1996).Physical and emotional problems of elite female gymnasts.New England Journal of Medicine,335,281-283.
  25. Walsh, M.,Speed, H.,Morris, T.(2003).Eating attitudes, weight control, and physical selfperceptions in female athletes retired from appearance-based sports.The 4th International ASPASP Congress 2003
  26. Weinberg & Gould、簡曜輝、季力康、卓俊伶、洪聰敏、黃英哲、黃崇儒、廖主民、盧俊宏(1995)。競技與健身運動心理學。台北市:台灣運動心理學會。
  27. Zigler, P. J.,Khoo, C. S.,Sherrb, B.,Nelson, J. A.,Larson, W. M.,Drewnowski, A.(1998).Body image and dieting behaviors among elite figure skaters.International Journal of Eating Disorders,24,421-427.
  28. 李衛東(2003)。優秀藝術體操運動員技術風格特徵及形成的主導因素。武漢體育學院學報,37(2),62-64。
  29. 洪嘉謙(2001)。碩士論文(碩士論文)。靜宜大學青少年兒童福利學系。
  30. 盧俊宏、黃瀅靜(1999)。大專學生社會體型焦慮、身體質量指數和運動行爲之關係研究。大專體育學刊,1(2),129-137。
Times Cited
  1. 鍾宜伶(2006)。大學女生身體形象與自尊對飲食異常傾向影響之研究─以淡江大學為例。淡江大學教育心理與諮商研究所碩士班學位論文。2006。1-127。 
  2. 陳秀惠(2013)。體適能瑜珈課程對女大學生身體意象與身體質量指數影響之研究。屏東科技大學休閒運動健康系所學位論文。2013。1-87。 
  3. 廖慧琳(2008)。國小高年級學童的身體意象及減重意圖對飲食控制行為之影響。臺灣大學衛生政策與管理研究所學位論文。2008。1-57。