Title

實踐策略,改變制度:工研院與創新前瞻機制的個案分析

Translated Titles

Practicing Strategies, Changing Institution: The Case of ITRI and Advanced Research Program

DOI

10.6843/NTHU.2010.00347

Authors

涂敏芬

Key Words

制度興業 ; 制度策略 ; 策略實踐 ; 工研院 ; 創新前瞻計畫 ; institutional entrepreneurship ; institutional strategy ; strategy-as-practice ; ITRI ; Advanced Research Program

PublicationName

清華大學科技管理研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2010年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

洪世章

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本論文從一個成熟的組織場域出發,根據制度興業的理論觀點,同時採用策略實踐的分析方式,探討核心行動者(興業家)從事改變的動機以及如何運用策略,改變其所處的制度環境。基於提問的是「為何」以及「如何」的解釋性研究問題,引導本文植基於自然探究法的研究精神,實徵上,透過縱向長期的研究途徑,執行歷史導向式的單一個案研究,蒐集大量的初級與次級資料,探討工研院在1987年到2009年間,推動創新前瞻計畫,跳脫傳統科專計畫場域,促成台灣科技專案體系轉型的歷程。本論文發展出一個奠基於行動構面之「湊組–連介–溝通」策略模型與時間構面之「創新期–擴散期–正當期」所交織而成的分析架構,而此分析架構被用來描述與分析本文的個案故事。最後,從理論層次討論制度興業的動機、策略以及制度化的演化模式。

Topic Category 科技管理學院 > 科技管理研究所
社會科學 > 管理學
Reference
  1. 史欽泰,1998,工業技術研究院25週年紀念特刊,新竹縣:工業技術研究院。
    連結:
  2. 朱博湧、熊杏華、林裕淩、劉子衙,2005,「非營利研發機構之智慧資本與績效評估:工研院之實證研究」,管理學報,第22期第3卷,頁277-293。
    連結:
  3. 吳淑敏,2005,工研院30年大事紀,新竹縣:工研院。
    連結:
  4. 林宗弘,2008,「台灣的後工業化:階級結構的轉型與社會不平等,1992-2007」,2008台灣社會學會年會,台北:中央研究院。
    連結:
  5. 徐進鈺,1999,「流動的鑲嵌:新竹科學工業園區的勞動力市場與高科技發展」,臺灣社會研究,35(1999年9月):75-118。
    連結:
  6. 許瓊文,2003,「研究機構形成產業研發機制」,史欽泰主編,產業科技與工研院:看得見的腦,頁67-104,新竹縣竹東鎮:工業技術研究院。
    連結:
  7. 黃兆洲,1972-06-28,「籌設中的工業技術研究院:它不招收學生,是專為業者解決問題的」,經濟日報02版。
    連結:
  8. 蔡偉銑,2009,「技術官僚與產業升級:台灣1970年代IC計畫的重新檢視」,人文及社會科學集刊,第21卷第1期,頁25-99。
    連結:
  9. 鄭自凱,1984,電子所十週年紀念-長歌與短調。新竹縣竹東鎮:工業技術研究院電子研究所。
    連結:
  10. 總統府公報,1973-01-31,「總統令:工業技術研究院設置條例」,第2528號:頁1-2。
    連結:
  11. Abbott, A. 1992. What do cases do? Some notes on activity in sociological analysis. In C. C. Ragin & H. S. Becker (Eds.), What is a Case? Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  12. Ahmadjian, C. L. & Robinson, P. 2001. Safety in numbers: Downsizing and the deinstitutionalization of permanent employment in Japan. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(4): 622-654.
    連結:
  13. Aldrich, H. E. & Fiol, C. M. 1994. Fools rush in? The institutional context of industry creation. Academy of Management Review, 19(4): 645-670.
    連結:
  14. Allen, T. J., Tushman, M. L., & Lee, D. M. S. 1979. Technology transfer as a function of position in the spectrum from research through development to technical services. Academy of Management Journal, 22(4): 694-708.
    連結:
  15. Anderson, P. & Tushman, M. 1990. Technological discontinuities and dominant designs: A cyclical model of technological change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(4): 604-633.
    連結:
  16. Argote, L. 1999. Organizational Learning: Creating, Retaining, and Transferring Knowledge. Boston: Kluwer Academic.
    連結:
  17. Arndt, M. & Bigelow, B. 2000. Presenting structural innovation in an institutional environment: Hospitals' use of impression management. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45(3): 494-522.
    連結:
  18. Baker, T., Miner, A., & Eesley, D. 2003. Improvising firms: Bricolage, retrospective interpretation and improvisational competencies in the founding process. Research Policy, 32(2): 255-276.
    連結:
  19. Baker, T. & Nelson, R. E. 2005. Creating something from nothing: Resource construction through entrepreneurial bricolage. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(3): 329-366.
    連結:
  20. Barley, S. 1990. Images of imaging: Notes on doing longitudinal field work. Organization Science, 1(3): 220-247.
    連結:
  21. Barrett, F. J. 1998. Creativity and improvisation in jazz and organizations: Implications for organizational learning. Organization Science, 9(5): 605-622.
    連結:
  22. Battilana, J., B. Leca, B., & Boxenbaum, E. V. A. 2009. How actors change institutions: Towards a theory of institutional entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Annuals, 3(1): 65-107.
    連結:
  23. Battilana, J. & D’Aunno, T. 2009. Institutional work and the paradox of embedded agency. In T. B. Lawrence & R. Suddaby & B. Leca (Eds.), Institutional Work: Actors and Agency in Institutional Studies of Organization: 31–58. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  24. Beckert, J. 1999. Agency, entrepreneurs, and institutional change. The role of strategic choice and institutionalized practices in organizations. Organization Studies, 20(5): 777-799.
    連結:
  25. Beckert, J. 2010. How do fields change? The interrelations of institutions, networks and cognition in the dynamics of markets. Organization Studies, 31(5): 605-627.
    連結:
  26. Berger, P. L. & Luckmann, T. 1966. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. New York: Doubleday.
    連結:
  27. Boiral, O. 2003. ISO 9000: Outside the iron cage. Organization Science, 14(6): 720-737.
    連結:
  28. Boje, D. 1991. The storytelling organization: A study of story performance in an office-supply firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36: 106-126.
    連結:
  29. Brown, J. S. & Duguid, P. 2002. The Social Life of Information. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.
    連結:
  30. Brown, S. L. & Eisenhardt, K. M. 1998. Competing on the Edge: Strategy as Structured Chaos. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    連結:
  31. Burt, R. S. 2004. Structural holes and good ideas. American Journal of Sociology, 110(2): 349-399.
    連結:
  32. Burt, R. S. 2005. Brokerage and Closure: An Introduction to Social Capital. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    連結:
  33. Busenitz, L. W., West, G. P., Shepherd, D., Nelson, T., Chandler, G. G. N., & Zacharakis, A. 2003. Entrepreneurship research in emergence: Past trends and future directions. Journal of Management, 29: 285-308.
    連結:
  34. Chesbrough, H. W. 2003. Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business Press.
    連結:
  35. Child, J., Lu, Y., & Tsai, T. 2007. Institutional entrepreneurship in building an environmental protection system for the People’s Republic of China. Organization Studies, 28(7): 1013-1034.
    連結:
  36. Christensen, C. M. & Bower, J. L. 1996. Customer power, strategic investment, and the failure of leading firms. Strategic Management Journal, 17: 197-218.
    連結:
  37. Ciborra, C. U. 1996. The platform organization: Recombining strategies, structures, and surprises. Organization Science, 7(2): 103-118.
    連結:
  38. Cleaver, F. 2002. Reinventing institutions: Bricolage and the social embeddedness of natural resource management. The European Journal of Development Research, 14(2): 11-30.
    連結:
  39. Clemens, E. S. & Cook, J. M. 1999. Politics and institutionalism: Explaining durability and change. Annual Review of Sociology, 25(1): 441-466.
    連結:
  40. Coffey, A. & Atkinson, P. 1996. Making Sense of Qualitative Data: Complementary Research Strategies. London: Sage.
    連結:
  41. Cohen, W. M. & Levinthal, D. A. 1990. Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1): 128-152.
    連結:
  42. Dacin, M. T., Goodstein, J., & Scott, W. R. 2002. Institutional theory and institutional change: Introduction to the special research forum. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1): 45-56.
    連結:
  43. Davis, G. F. 1991. Agents without principles? The spread of the poison pill through the intercorporate network. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(4): 583-613.
    連結:
  44. Davis, G. F., Diekmann, K. A., & Tinsley, C. H. 1994. The decline and fall of the conglomerate firm in the 1980s: The deinstitutionalization of an organizational form. American Sociological Review, 59(4): 547-570.
    連結:
  45. Dejean, F., Gond, J.-P., & Leca, B. 2004. Measuring the unmeasured: An institutional entrepreneur strategy in an emerging industry. Human Relations, 57(6): 741-764.
    連結:
  46. Denzin, N. K. 1989. Interpretive Interactionism. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
    連結:
  47. DiMaggio, P. J. & Powell, W. W. 1983. The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2): 147-160.
    連結:
  48. DiMaggio, P. J. 1988. Interest and agency in institutional theory. In L. G. Zucker (Ed.), Institutional Patterns and Organizations: Culture and Environment: 3-22. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    連結:
  49. DiMaggio, P. J. 1991. Constructing on organizational field as a professional project: U.S. art museums, 1920-1940. In W. W. Powell & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis: 267-292. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    連結:
  50. DiMaggio, P. J. & Powell, W. W. 1991. The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. In W. W. Powell & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis: 63-82. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    連結:
  51. Dorado, S. 2005. Institutional entrepreneurship, partaking, and convening. Organization Studies, 26(3): 385-414.
    連結:
  52. Eisenhardt, K. M. 1989. Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4): 532-550.
    連結:
  53. Emirbayer, M. & Mische, A. 1998. What Is Agency? American Journal of Sociology, 103(4): 962-1023.
    連結:
  54. Farjoun, M. 2002. The dialectics of institutional development in emergent and turbulent fields: The history of pricing conventions in the on-line database industry. Academy of Management Journal, 45(5): 848-874.
    連結:
  55. Fligstein, N. 1997. Social skill and institutional theory. American Behavioral Scientist, 40(4): 397-405.
    連結:
  56. Fligstein, N. 2001. Social skill and the theory of fields. Sociological Theory, 19(2): 105-125.
    連結:
  57. Fligstein, N. & Mara-Drita, I. 1996. How to make a market: Reflections on the attempt to create a single market in the European Union. American Journal of Sociology, 102(1): 1-33.
    連結:
  58. Galunic, D. C. & Rodan, S. 1998. Resource recombinations in the firm: Knowledge structures and the potential for Schumpeterian innovation. Strategic Management Journal, 19(12): 1193-1201.
    連結:
  59. Garud, R. & Rappa, M. A. 1994. A socio-cognitive model of technology evolution: The case of cochlear implants. Organization Science, 5(3): 344-362.
    連結:
  60. Garud, R., Jain, S., & Kumaraswamy, A. 2002. Institutional entrepreneurship in the sponsorship of common technological standards: The case of the Sun Microsystems and Java. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1): 196-214.
    連結:
  61. Garud, R. & Karnøe, P. 2003. Bricolage versus breakthrough: Distributed and embedded agency in technology entrepreneurship. Research Policy, 32(2): 277-300.
    連結:
  62. Giddens, A. 1984. The Constitution of Society. Cambridge: Polity.
    連結:
  63. Glaser, B. G. & Strauss, A. L. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    連結:
  64. Gold, T. B. 1986. State and Society in the Taiwan Miracle. London: ME Sharpe.
    連結:
  65. Green, S. E. 2004. A rhetorical theory of diffusion. Academy of Management Review, 29(4): 653-669.
    連結:
  66. Green Jr., S. E., Li, Y., & Nohria, N. 2009. Suspended in self-spun webs of significance: A rhetorical model of institutionalization and institutionally embedded agency. Academy of Management Journal, 52(1): 11-36.
    連結:
  67. Greenwood, R., Hinings, C. R., & Suddaby, R. 2002. Theorizing change: The role of professional associations in the transformation of institutionalized fields. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1): 58-80.
    連結:
  68. Greenwood, R. & Suddaby, R. 2006. Institutional entrepreneurship in mature fields: The big five accounting firms. Academy of Management Journal, 49(1): 27-48.
    連結:
  69. Hardy, C. 1994. Under-organized interorganizational domains: The case of refugee systems. Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, 30: 278-296.
    連結:
  70. Hardy, C. & Maguire, S. 2008. Institutional entrepreneurship. In R. Greenwood, C. Oliver, R. Suddaby, & K. Sahlin, (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Organizational Institutionalism: 198-217. London: Sage.
    連結:
  71. Hargrave, T. J. & Van De Ven, A. H. 2006. A collective action model of institutional innovation. Academy of Management Review, 31(4): 864-888.
    連結:
  72. Hargadon, A. B. & Douglas, Y. 2001. When innovations meet institutions: Edison and the design of the electric light. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(3): 476-501.
    連結:
  73. Hargadon, A. & Sutton, R. I. 1997. Technology brokering and innovation in a product development firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(4): 716-749.
    連結:
  74. Haveman, H. A. & Rao, H. 1997. Structuring a theory of moral sentiments: Institutional and organizational coevolution in the early thrift industry. American Journal of Sociology, 102(6): 1606-1651.
    連結:
  75. Henderson, R. M. & Clark, K. B. 1990. Architectural innovation: The reconfiguration of existing product technologies and the failure of established firms. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1): 9-30.
    連結:
  76. Hendry, J. & Seidl, D. 2003. The structure and significance of strategic episodes: Social systems theory and the routine practices of strategic change. Journal of Management Studies, 40(1): 175-196.
    連結:
  77. Hensmans, M. 2003. Social movement organizations: A metaphor for strategic actors in institutional fields. Organization Studies, 24(3): 355-381.
    連結:
  78. Hillman, A. J. & Hitt, M. A. 1999. Corporate political strategy formulation: A model of approach, participation, and strategy decisions. Academy of Management Review, 24(4): 825-842.
    連結:
  79. Hoffman, A. J. 1997. From Heresy to Dogma: An Institutional History of Corporate Environmentalism. San Francisco: New Lexington Press.
    連結:
  80. Hoffman, A. J. 1999. Institutional evolution and change: Environmentalism and the U.S. chemical industry. Academy of Management Journal, 42(4): 351-371.
    連結:
  81. Holm, P. 1995. The dynamics of institutionalization: Transformation processes in Norwegian fisheries. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(3): 398-422.
    連結:
  82. Hung, S.-C. 2002. Mobilising networks to achieve strategic difference. Long Range Planning, 35(6): 591-613.
    連結:
  83. Hung, S.-C. 2004. Explaining the process of innovation: The dynamic reconciliation of action and structure. Human Relations, 57(11): 1479-1497.
    連結:
  84. Hung, S.-C. & Whittington, R. 1997. Strategies and institutions: A pluralistic account of strategies in the Taiwanese computer industry. Organization Studies, 18(4): 551-575.
    連結:
  85. Ingram, P. & Rao, H. 2004. Store wars: The enactment and repeal of anti-chain-store legislation in America. American Journal of Sociology, 110(2): 446-487.
    連結:
  86. Jain, S. & George, G. 2007. Technology transfer offices as institutional entrepreneurs: The case of Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation and human embryonic stem cells. Industrial and Corporate Change, 16(4): 535-567.
    連結:
  87. Jepperson, R. L. 1991. Institutions, institutional effects, and institutionalism. In W. W. Powell & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis: 143-163. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    連結:
  88. Johnson, G., Langely, A., Melin, L., & Whittington, R. 2007. Strategy as Practice: Research Directions and Resources. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  89. Jovchelovitch, S. & Bauer, M. W. 2000. Narrative interview. In M. W. Bauer & G. Gaskell (Eds.), Qualitative Researching with Text, Image and Sound : A Practical Handbook: 57-74. London: Sage.
    連結:
  90. Kraatz, M. S. & Zajac, E. J. 1996. Exploring the limits of the new institutionalism: The causes and consequences of illegitimate organization change. American Sociological Review, 61(5): 812-836.
    連結:
  91. Kraatz, M. S. & Moore, J. H. 2002. Executive migration and institutional change. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1): 120-143.
    連結:
  92. Lammers, J. C. & Barbour, J. B. 2006. An institutional theory of organizational communication. Communication Theory, 16(3): 356-377.
    連結:
  93. Langley, A. 1999. Strategies for theorizing from process data. Academy of Management Review, 24(4): 691-710.
    連結:
  94. Lawrence, T. B. 1999. Institutional strategy. Journal of Management, 25(2): 161-187.
    連結:
  95. Lawrence, T. B., Winn, M. I., & Jennings, P. D. 2001. The temporal dynamics of institutionalization. Academy of Management Review, 26(4): 624-644.
    連結:
  96. Lawrence, T. B. & Suddaby, R. 2006. Institutions and institutional work. In S. Clegg & C. Hardy & T. Lawrence & W. R. Nord (Eds.), Handbook of Organization Studies, 2nd ed.: 215-254. Oxford, UK: Sage.
    連結:
  97. Leblebici, H., Salancik, G. R., Copay, A., & King, T. 1991. Institutional change and the transformation of interorganizational fields: An organizational history of the U.S. Radio broadcasting industry. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36: 333-363.
    連結:
  98. Lin, N. 2000. Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. UK: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  99. Lounsbury, M. & Glynn, M. A. 2001. Cultural entrepreneurship: Stories, legitimacy, and the acquisition of resources. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6/7): 545-564.
    連結:
  100. Lounsbury, M., Ventresca, M., & Hirsch, P. M. 2003. Social movements, field frames and industry emergence: A cultural-political perspective on US recycling. Socio-Economic Review, 1(1): 71-104.
    連結:
  101. Lounsbury, M. & Crumley, E. T. 2007. New practice creation: An institutional perspective on innovation. Organization Studies, 28(7): 993-1012.
    連結:
  102. Maguire, S., Hardy, C., & Lawrence, T. B. 2004. Institutional entrepreneurship in emerging fields: HIV/AIDS treatment advocacy in Canada. Academy of Management Journal, 47(5): 657-679.
    連結:
  103. Maguire, S. & Hardy, C. 2006. The emergence of new global institutions: A discursive perspective. Organization Studies, 27(1): 7-29.
    連結:
  104. Maguire, S. & Hardy, C. 2009. Discourse and deinstitutionalization: The decline of DDT. Academy of Management Journal, 52(1): 148-178.
    連結:
  105. March, J. G. 1991. Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1): 71-87.
    連結:
  106. Mathews, J. A. 2002. The origins and dynamics of Taiwan's R&D consortia. Research Policy, 31(4): 633-651.
    連結:
  107. Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. 1995. An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3): 709-734.
    連結:
  108. McInerney, P.-B. 2008. Showdown at Kykuit: Field-configuring events as loci for conventionalizing accounts. Journal of Management Studies, 45(6): 1089-1116.
    連結:
  109. Meyer, J. W. & Rowan, B. 1977. Institutional organizations: Structure as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 83: 340-363.
    連結:
  110. Meyer, J. W. 1996. Otherhood: The promulgation and transmission of ideas in the modern organizational environment. In B. Czarniawska & G. Sevon (Eds.), Translating Organizational Change: 240-252. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    連結:
  111. Meyerson, D. E. 1994. Interpretations of stress in institutions: The cultural production of ambiguity and burnout. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39(4): 628-653.
    連結:
  112. Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. London: Sage.
    連結:
  113. Mintzberg, H. 1979. An emerging strategy of “direct” research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24: 582-589.
    連結:
  114. Mishler, E. G. 1986. Research Interviewing: Context and Narrative. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    連結:
  115. Munir, K. A. 2005. The social construction of events: A study of institutional change in the photographic field. Organization Studies, 26(1): 93-112.
    連結:
  116. Munir, K. A. & Phillips, N. 2005. The birth of the ‘Kodak Moment’: Institutional entrepreneurship and the adoption of new technologies. Organization Studies, 26(11): 1665-1687.
    連結:
  117. Nelson, R. R. & Winter, S. G. 1982. An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
    連結:
  118. Oakes, L. S., Townley, B., & Cooper, D. J. 1998. Business planning as pedagogy: Language and control in a changing institutional field. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43(2): 257-292.
    連結:
  119. Oliver, C. 1991. Strategic responses to institutional processes. Academy of Management Review, 16(1): 145-179.
    連結:
  120. Oliver, C. 1992. The antecedents of deinstitutionalization. Organization Studies, 13(4): 563-588.
    連結:
  121. Pacheco, D. F., York, J. G., Dean, T. J., & Sarasvathy, S. D. 2010. The coevolution of institutional entrepreneurship: A tale of two theories. Journal of Management, 36(4): 974-1010.
    連結:
  122. Patton, M. Q. 2002. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
    連結:
  123. Perkmann, M. & Spicer, A. 2007. ‘Healing the Scars of History’: Projects, Skills and Field Strategies in Institutional Entrepreneurship. Organization Studies, 28(7): 1101-1122.
    連結:
  124. Pentland, B. T. 1999. Building process theory with narrative: From description to explanation. Academy of Management Review, 24(4): 711-724.
    連結:
  125. Pettigrew, A. M. 1992. The character and significance of strategy process research. Strategic Management Journal, 13(special issue): 5-16.
    連結:
  126. Phillips, N. & Tracey, P. 2007. Opportunity recognition, entrepreneurial capabilities and bricolage: Connecting institutional theory and entrepreneurship in strategic organization. Strategic Organization, 5(3): 313-320.
    連結:
  127. Porac, J. & Thomas, H. 1990. Taxonomic mental models in competitor definition. Academy of Management Review, 15(2): 224-240.
    連結:
  128. Porter, M. 1980. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. New York: Free Press.
    連結:
  129. Powell, W. W., Koput, K. W., & Smith-Doerr, L. 1996. Interorganizational collaboration and the locus of innovation: Networks of learning in biotechnology. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(1): 116-145.
    連結:
  130. Pozzebon, M. 2004. The influence of a structurationist view on strategic management research. Journal of Management Studies, 41(2): 247-272.
    連結:
  131. Ragin, C. C. 1987. The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
    連結:
  132. Rao, H. 1994. The social construction of reputation: Certification contests, legitimation, and the survival of organizations in the American automobile industry: 1895–1912. Strategic Management Journal, 15(8): 29-44.
    連結:
  133. Rao, H. 1998. Caveat emptor: The construction of nonprofit consumer watchdog organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 103(4): 912-961.
    連結:
  134. Rao, H., Monin, P., & Durand, R. 2003. Institutional change in Toque Ville: Nouvelle Cuisine as an identity movement in French gastronomy. American Journal of Sociology, 108(4): 795-843.
    連結:
  135. Rao, H., Monin, P., & Durand, R. 2005. Border crossing: Bricolage and the erosion of categorical boundaries in French Gastronomy. American Sociological Review, 70(6): 968-991.
    連結:
  136. Sanders, W. G. & Tuschke, A. 2007. The adoption of institutionally contested organizational practices: The emergence of stock option pay in Germany. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1): 33-56.
    連結:
  137. Seidman, I. 1998. Interviewing as Qualitative Research: A Guide for Researchers in Education and the Social Sciences (2nd). New York: Teachers College Press.
    連結:
  138. Seo, M.-G. & Creed, W. E. D. 2002. Institutional contradictions, praxis, and institutional change: A dialectical perspective. Academy of Management Review, 27(2): 222-247.
    連結:
  139. Snow, D. A., Rochford Jr, E. B., Worden, S. K., & Benford, R. D. 1986. Frame alignment processes, micromobilization, and movement participation. American Sociological Review, 51: 464-481.
    連結:
  140. Stake, R. E. 1978. The case-study method for social inquiry. Educational Researcher, 7: 5-8.
    連結:
  141. Stinchcombe, A. L. 1965. Social structure and organizations. In J. G. March (Ed.), Handbook of Organizations: 163-178. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
    連結:
  142. Strauss, A. L. 1987. Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  143. Strauss, A. L. & Corbin, J. 1998. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (2nd). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    連結:
  144. Suchman, M. C. 1995. Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3): 571-610.
    連結:
  145. Suddaby, R. & Greenwood, R. 2005. Rhetorical strategies of legitimacy. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(1): 35-67.
    連結:
  146. Thornton, P. H. & Ocasio, W. 1999. Institutional logics and the historical contingency of power in organizations: Executive succession in the higher education publishing industry, 1958-1990. American Journal of Sociology, 105(3): 801-843.
    連結:
  147. Thornton, P. H. 2002. The rise of the corporation in a craft industry: Conflict and conformity in institutional logics. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1): 81-101.
    連結:
  148. Tushman, M. 1977. Special boundary roles in the innovation process. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22(4): 587-605.
    連結:
  149. Tushman, M. L. & Anderson, P. 1986. Technological discontinuities and organizational environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31(3): 439-465.
    連結:
  150. Venkataraman, S. 1997. The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research. In J. Katz & R. Brockhaus (Eds.), Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm emergence and Growth, Vol. 3: 119-138. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    連結:
  151. Wengraf, T. 2001. Copying, indexing and transcribing. In T. Wengraf (Ed.), Qualitative Research Interviewing: Biographic Narrative and Semi-Structured Methods: 208-223. Thousand Oaks, London: Sage.
    連結:
  152. Wicks, D. 2001. Institutionalized mindsets of invulnerability: Differentiated institutional fields and the antecedents of organizational crisis. Organization Studies, 22(4): 659-692.
    連結:
  153. Wijen, F. & Ansari, S. 2007. Overcoming inaction through collective institutional entrepreneurship: Insights from regime theory. Organization Studies, 28(7): 1079-1100.
    連結:
  154. Williamson, O. E. 1975. Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications. New York: Free Press.
    連結:
  155. Williamson, O. E. 1981. The economics of organization: The transaction cost approach. American Journal of Sociology, 87: 548-577.
    連結:
  156. Whittington, R. 2003. The work of strategizing and organizing: For a practice perspective. Strategic Organization, 1(1): 117-125.
    連結:
  157. Whittington, R. 2006. Completing the practice turn in strategy research. Organization Studies, 27(5): 613-634.
    連結:
  158. Whittington, R. 2008. Alfred Chandler, founder of strategy: Lost tradition and renewed inspiration. Business History Review, 82(2): 267-277.
    連結:
  159. Wooten, M. & Hoffman, A. J. 2008. Organizational fields: Past, present and future. In R. Greenwood & C. Oliver & R. Suddaby & K. Sahlin (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Organizational Institutionalism: 130-147. London: Sage.
    連結:
  160. Yates, J. A. & Orlikowski, W. J. 1992. Genres of organizational communication: A structurational approach to studying communication and media. Academy of Management Review, 17(2): 299-326.
    連結:
  161. Yin, R. K. 2003. Case Study Research: Design and Methods (3rd.). Newbury Park, London: Sage Publications.
    連結:
  162. Zilber, T. B. 2006. The work of the symbolic in institutional processes: Translations of rational myths in Israeli high tech. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2): 281-303.
    連結:
  163. Zilber, T. B. 2007. Stories and the discursive dynamics of institutional entrepreneurship: The case of Israeli high-tech after the bubble. Organization Studies, 28(7): 1035-1054.
    連結:
  164. Zimmerman, M. A. & Zeitz, G. J. 2002. Beyond survival: Achieving new venture growth by building legitimacy. Academy of Management Review, 27(3): 414-431.
    連結:
  165. Zucker, L. G. 1988. Where do institutional patterns come from? Organizations as actors in social systems. In L. G. Zucker (Ed.), Institutional Patterns and Organizations: Culture and Environment: 23-49. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    連結:
  166. 工業技術研究院年報,1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005/2006, 2007/2008,新竹縣:工業技術研究院。
  167. 工業技術研究院,2001,工研院創新前瞻技術研究計畫。經濟部九十年度科技專案研究發展計畫書,計畫編號:90-EC-2-A-17-0337,計畫主持人:林敏雄。
  168. 工研院產業經濟與資訊服務中心,2004,工研院創新前瞻技術研究計畫績效自評報告。新竹縣竹東鎮:工研院產業經濟與資訊服務中心。
  169. 工研院企劃與研發處,2008,工研院創新前瞻技術研究計畫績效自評報告。新竹縣竹東鎮:工研院企劃與研發處
  170. 工研人月刊,2009,「院長院務報告:挑戰2012,本院將擴大綠能及生醫研發」,第316期,頁1。
  171. 中華民國科學技術統計要覽,1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008,台北市:行政院國家科學委員會。
  172. 王之杰,2002,「工研院是台灣的黃金左腳:工研院年近三十,下一個黃金年代在哪裡?」,財訊,2002年8月號,頁363-366。
  173. 王之杰、楊方儒、張育寧、蔡佳珊,2008,預見科技新未來,台北市:天下文化。
  174. 王啟清,1993-07-05,「工研院走過廿年 面臨停看聽」,經濟日報,12版。
  175. 史欽泰主編,2003,產業科技與工研院-看得見的腦,新竹縣:工研院。
  176. 史欽泰、袁建中、羅達賢,2002,「國家級研發機構評估模式之探討-以台灣工研院為例」,2002年中華民國科技管理研討會暨兩岸科技展與管理論壇: 401-412,新竹市:國立交通大學。
  177. 立法院公報,1972a,「立法院經濟、教育兩委員會審查工業技術研究院設置條例草案第一次聯席會議記錄」,立法院公報,第61卷第70期委員會記錄,頁2-13。
  178. 立法院公報,1972b,「立法院經濟、教育兩委員會審查工業技術研究院設置條例草案第二次聯席會議記錄」,立法院公報,第61卷第72期委員會記錄,頁2-12。
  179. 立法院公報,1972c,「立法院經濟、教育兩委員會審查工業技術研究院設置條例草案第三次聯席會議記錄」,立法院公報,第61卷第81期委員會記錄,頁1-12。
  180. 立法院公報,1972d,「立法院經濟、教育兩委員會審查工業技術研究院設置條例草案第四次聯席會議記錄」,立法院公報,第61卷第82期委員會記錄,頁1-11。
  181. 立法院公報,1972e,「立法院經濟、教育兩委員會審查工業技術研究院設置條例草案第五次聯席會議記錄」,立法院公報,第61卷第82期委員會記錄,頁11-19。
  182. 立法院公報,1972f,「立法院經濟、教育兩委員會審查工業技術研究院設置條例草案第六次聯席會議記錄」,立法院公報,第61卷第88期委員會記錄,頁18-29。
  183. 立法院公報,1973a,「立法院經濟、教育兩委員會審查工業技術研究院設置條例草案第七次聯席會議記錄」,立法院公報,第62卷第3期委員會記錄,頁1-13。
  184. 立法院公報,1973b,「立法院經濟、教育兩委員會審查工業技術研究院設置條例草案第八次聯席會議記錄」,立法院公報,第62卷第4期委員會記錄,頁1-11。
  185. 立法院公報,1973c,「立法院經濟、教育兩委員會審查工業技術研究院設置條例草案第九次聯席會議記錄」,立法院公報,第62卷第18期委員會記錄,頁1-18。
  186. 立法院公報,1973d,「立法院教育委員會第五十會期第九次全體委員會議記錄」,立法院公報,第62卷第10期委員會記錄,頁2-10。
  187. 立法院公報,1973e,「本院經濟、教育兩委員會報告審查行政院函請審議工業技術研究院設置條例草案案」,立法院公報,第62卷第5期院會記錄,頁6-40。
  188. 立法院公報,2000a,「立法院第四屆第三會期科技及資訊委員會第八次會議」,立法院公報,第89卷第43期,頁131-181。
  189. 立法院公報,2000b,「立法院第四屆第四會期科技及資訊委員會第六次會議紀錄」,立法院公報,第89卷第60期,頁252-299。
  190. 立法院公報,2005a,「立法院第6屆第1會期科技及資訊、經濟及能源、預算及決算委員會三委員會第1次聯席會議紀錄」,立法院公報,第94卷第23期,頁383-434。
  191. 立法院公報,2005b,「立法院第6屆第1會期科技及資訊委員會第12次全體委員會會議記錄」,立法院公報,第94卷第36期,頁307-336。
  192. 立法院公報,2008,「第7屆第1會期經濟委員會第37次全體委員會議」,立法院公報,第97卷第41期,頁167-203。
  193. 何錦堂,1998,台灣IC產業發展之研究,博士論文,台北市:國立台灣大學。
  194. 汪其模,2005,創新讓夢想起飛:創新工業技術移轉公司專刊,台北市:創新工業技術轉公司。
  195. 李碧涵,1996,「台灣企業經濟之結構調整與後工業轉型」,中山學術論叢(國立台灣大學),第14卷,頁81-121。
  196. 李煜梓,1990-12-03,「執行中長程研究、宜彈性運用預算,工研院爭取種子經費免審查」,經濟日報。
  197. 李若松,1993-07-12,「工研院將成立評估小組,邀請孔祥重等中研院院士問診」,聯合報,19版/產經理財。
  198. 李順德,1998-08-22,「張忠謀批工研院走偏方向,主張發揮主導及前瞻性功能,不應一切依產業需求做研究」,經濟日報,第4版。
  199. 李彥甫,1998-12-11,「行政院科技顧問會議閉幕,邁向科技島應走創新的路」,聯合報,第6版。
  200. 李珣瑛,2004-05-26,「工研院開發無光罩製PCB技術,創新前瞻科技饗宴成果發表,端出多項新科技,積極洽商技轉」,經濟日報,第31版。
  201. 杜竹風,1988-03-12,「工研院人才外流為那樁,張忠謀下兩帖解決藥方」,經濟日報。
  202. 吳思華、沈榮欽,1999,「台灣積體電路產業的形成與發展」,蔡敦浩主編,管理資本在台灣,頁57-150,台北市:遠流出版社。
  203. 吳淑美,2004,電子少林三十外傳:由弱冠至而立,新竹縣:工研院電子所。
  204. 林裕凌,2006,工研院外部性與績效評估模式初探與實證,博士論文,新竹市:國立交通大學。
  205. 林麗美,1993-08-13,「政府研發項目與業界需求脫節,曹興誠質疑科技專案經費運用」,經濟日報。
  206. 科技專案執行年報,1999、2000、2001、2002、2003、2004、2005、2006、2007、2008,台北市:經濟部技術處發行。
  207. 洪世章,2002,「結構衝突與產業劣勢:台灣硬碟機工業之發展」,管理學報,第19卷第2期,頁273-302。
  208. 洪世章、黃怡華,2003,「研究機構利用資源加速產業發展」,史欽泰主編,產業科技與工研院:看得見的腦,頁105-135,新竹縣竹東鎮:工業技術研究院。
  209. 洪懿妍,2003,創新引擎:工研院:臺灣產業成功的推手,台北市:天下出版社。
  210. 高慧君,2008,台灣工研院三個價值導向管理的創新,博士論文,新竹市:國立交通大學。
  211. 曹松清,1998-08-19,「前瞻技術研發研討會,國內外產官學言專家齊聚一堂」,經濟日報。
  212. 陳宜仁,2004,以系統觀探討工研院在台灣產業研發體系之角色,博士論文,新竹市:國立交通大學。
  213. 陳修賢,1993-09-01,「引爆科技龍頭之爭」,天下雜誌,第148期,頁200-206。
  214. 許友耕,2003,工業技術研究院組織變革管理的研究,博士論文,新竹市:國立交通大學。
  215. 黃嘉裕,1997-04-26,「人物專訪:經濟部技術處長陳昭義,我不是聖誕老公公」,經濟日報。
  216. 黃欽勇,1996,電腦王國R.O.C.:Republic of Computers的傳奇,台北市:天下文化出版社。
  217. 黃文魁、卓胡斌、許鴻淵,2006,「探討創新前瞻計畫對於工研院提昇專利與論文產出之影響」,2006工研院創新與科技管理研討會,台中市:逢甲大學。
  218. 張如心、潘文淵文教基金會,2006,矽說台灣,台北市:天下文化。
  219. 張彥文,2006,「威盛為何要與琉璃工房對話?」,遠見雜誌,2006年1月號。
  220. 張俊彥、游伯龍,2002,活力:台灣如何創造半導體與個人電腦產業奇蹟,台北市:時報出版。
  221. 張峰源,2003,「我國研發聯盟推動現況」,經濟情勢暨評論季刊,第9卷第2期,頁87-100。
  222. 楊丁元、陳慧玲,1996,業競天擇:高科技產業生態,台北市:工商時報。
  223. 楊艾俐,1989,孫運璿傳,台北市:天下雜誌出版社。
  224. 經濟部技術處,2005,2004法人科技專案執行成效報告,台北市:經濟部技術處。
  225. 經濟部技術處,2006,2005法人科技專案執行成效報告,台北市:經濟部技術處。
  226. 電子工業研究所,2003,晶彩30:電子所三十週年大事記,新竹縣:工研院電子所。
  227. 道格拉斯‧諾斯/原著、劉瑞華/譯者,1994,制度、制度變遷與經濟成就。台北市:時報文化。
  228. 劉瑞華,2003,「工研院對台灣產業的貢獻」,史欽泰主編,產業技術與工研院:看得見的腦,頁199-230,新竹縣竹東鎮:工業技術研究院。
  229. 盧智芳,1998-05-01,「從守成走向開拓」,天下雜誌,第204期,頁90-98。
  230. 盧智芳,2000年9月1日,「工研院、資策會搭上變身列車」,天下雜誌,頁186-193。
  231. 羅達賢,2003,工業技術研究院技術創新管理之研究,博士論文,新竹市:國立交通大學。
  232. 蘇立瑩,1994,也有風雨也有晴:電子所二十年的軌跡,新竹縣:工研院電子所。
  233. 蘇國賢,2008,「台灣的所得分配與社會流動之長期趨勢」,王宏仁、李廣均、龔宜君(編),跨戒:流動與堅持的台灣社會:頁187-216,台北市:群學出版社。
  234. Benford, R. D. & Snow, D. 2000. Framing processes and social movements: An overview and assessment. In K. Gook & J. Hagan (Eds.), Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 26: 611-639. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
  235. Bourdieu, P. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge, New York Cambridge University Press.
  236. Bourdieu, P. 1990. The Logic of Practice. Cambridge: Polity.
  237. Burt, R. S. 1992. Structural Holes. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
  238. Campbell, J. L. 2004. Institutional Change and Globalization. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  239. Chakravarthy, B. S. & White, R. E. 2002. Strategy process: Changing and implementing strategies. In A. Pettigrew & H. Thomas & R. Whittington (Eds.), Handbook of Strategy and Management: 183-206. London: Sage.
  240. Chandler, A. D. 1973. Strategy and Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.
  241. Daft, R. L. & Lengel, R. H. 1984. Information richness: A new approach to managerial behavior and organization design. In L. L. Cummings & B. W. Staw (Eds.), Research in Organization Behavior, Vol. 6: 191-233. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  242. de Certeau, M. & Rendall, S. 1984. The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  243. Eisenhardt, K. M. & Brown, S. L. 1999. Patching: Restitching business portfolios in dynamic markets. Harvard Business Review, 77(3): 72-83.
  244. Erlandson, D. A., Harris, E. L., Skipper, B., L., & Allen, S. D. 1993. Doing Naturalistic Inquiry: A Guide to Methods. London: Sage Publications.
  245. Geertz, C. 1973. Thick description: Toward an interpretive theory of culture. In C. Geertz (Ed.), The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays: 3-30. New York: Basic Books.
  246. Huber, G. & Daft, R. 1987. The information environment of organizations. In F. M. Jablin & L. L. Putnam & K. H. Roberts & L. W. Porter (Eds.), Handbook of Organizational Communication: An Interdisplinary Perspective: 130-164. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
  247. Hung, S.-C. & Whittington, R. 2010. Change, we can: Strategies for new organizational form creation and the professionalization of Taiwanese IT. (Working paper)
  248. ITRI Assessment Report, 1993. Hsinchu: ITRI.
  249. Johnson, C., Dowd, T. J., & Ridgeway, C. L. 2006. Legitimacy as a social process. Annual Review of Sociology, 32: 53-78.
  250. Krone, K., Jablin, F., & Putnam, L. 1987. Communication theory and organizational communication: Multiple perspective. In F. M. Jablin & L. L. Putnam & K. H. Roberts & L. W. Porter (Eds.), Handbook of Organizational Communication: An Interdisplinary Perspective: 11-17. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
  251. Lincoln, Y. S. & Guba, E. G. 1985. Naturalistic Inquiry. Newbury Park, London: Sage Publications.
  252. Phillips, N., Lawrence, T. B., & Hardy, C. 2004. Discourse and institutions. Academy of Management Review, 29(4): 635-652.
  253. Pitman, M. A. & Maxwell, J. A. 1992. Applications of qualitative and ethnographic research. In M. D. LeCompte & W. L. Millroy & J. Preissle (Eds.), The Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education: 729-770. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  254. Rao, H., Morrill, C., & Zald, M. N. 2000. Power plays: How social movements and collective action create new organizational forms. In R. I. Sutton & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 22: 239-282. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  255. Rindova, V., Barry, D., & Ketchen, D. J. 2009. Entrepreneuring as emancipation. Academy of Management Review, 34(3): 477-491.
  256. Roe, R. A., Waller, M. J., & Clegg, S. R. 2009. Time in Organizational Research. New York: Routledge.
  257. Scott, W. R. 2001. Institutions and Organizations (2nd). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
  258. Seidel, J. & Kelle, U. 1995. Different functions of coding in the analysis of textual data. In U. Kelle (Ed.), Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis: Theory, Methods and Practice. London: Sage.
  259. Snow, D. A. & Benford, R. D. 1992. Master frames and cycles of protest. In D. M. Aldon & M. M. Carol (Eds.), Frontiers in Social Movement Theory: 133-155. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  260. Taiwan Statistical Data Book 2008. Taipei: Council for Economic Planning and Development, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan).
  261. Weick, K. E. 1969. The Social Psychology of Organizing. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.
Times Cited
  1. 楊漪雯(2014)。創建產業鏈之策略:三維晶片的個案研究。淡江大學企業管理學系碩士班學位論文。2014。1-92。 
  2. 葉文勇(2013)。組織使命對非營利組織決策之影響—以工研院推動智權價值創造之思維與作法為例。清華大學高階主管經營管理碩士在職專班學位論文。2013。1-44。 
  3. 邱亦睿(2015)。臺灣發展型國家的消逝?工研院與半導體產業關係之轉型(1974-2014)。臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文。2015。1-120。 
  4. 黃鎮臺(2014)。政黨輪替與臺灣工業技術研究院的轉型。臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文。2014。1-73。 
  5. 楊宜蓁(2016)。應用混沌方程式與碎形維度於水稻高光譜資料判釋之研究。逢甲大學土地管理學系學位論文。2016。1-119。 
  6. 徐嘉徽(2016)。應用混沌方程式與高光譜資料於農作物類別判釋之研究。逢甲大學土地管理學系學位論文。2016。1-83。 
  7. 卓世傑(2005)。企業動態能耐與成長之共同演化模型研究。臺灣大學國際企業管理組學位論文。2005。1-132。
  8. 陳紀良(2007)。產業技術與市場需求之混沌秩序研究 ─ 以台灣行動通訊產業為例。中央大學企業管理學系學位論文。2007。1-68。
  9. 嚴倢妤(2011)。以複雜科學觀點探討企業內部創業。政治大學科技管理研究所學位論文。2011。1-221。