Title

李商隱〈荊門西下〉詩考

Translated Titles

Textual Verification of Li Shangyin's 李商隱 Poem: Jingmen Xixia 荊門西下

DOI

10.6488/JCGE.200306.0071

Authors

余金龍(Jin-Long Yu)

Key Words

繫年 ; 西下 ; 對象 ; Xinian繫車 ; Xixia西下 ; Duixiang對象

PublicationName

通識研究集刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

3期(2003 / 06 / 01)

Page #

71 - 100

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本論文探討晚唐詩人李商隱(八一二~八五八)〈荊門西下〉詩之繫年及其詩作對象。〈荊門西下〉詩,自清代程夢星繫年大中元年(八四七)十月,出使江陵,大中二年(八四八)正月回程時,於荊門所作。後經馮浩、張爾田箋註後,認爲本詩係李商隱於大中十年夏,自桂林北返回京,順勢有「巴蜀之遊」時所作。又經岑仲勉反論後,乃至今人劉學鍇、餘恕誠之解釋,並認爲本詩是李商隱於大中元年入桂管幕時,途經江陵荊門所作。 但本論文則推論李商隱於大中元十月於正月間出使江陵,與詩作之夏季時間不合,且與回程方向不合,回程應是南下桂管。荊門西下,則是又再折返江陵西進巴蜀。 又本論認爲大中二年八月秋,李商隱正自桂林送幕主鄭亞赴循州,並於九月九日之後,始自循州北返回京,途經江陵時已是初冬。與詩作之季節時間、方向均不合。 另外,本論認爲大中元年李商隱自長安赴桂管雖是夏季,但是李商隱並非是自長安途經江陵、荊門至潭州,再行赴桂管。而是自長安、洛陽,沿水路,溯長江至潭州,再行赴桂管。此行並未途經荊門、江陵。據此〈荊門西下〉詩,並非是上述大中元年至大中二年間,李商隱自長安至桂林往返間途次江陵,或出使江陵再行「巴蜀之遊」時所作,而是其他時間所作。 最後,本論文並探討〈荊門西下〉詩之繫年及其詩作之場所,應是大中六年(八五二),李商隱任職梓州幕時,奉使送杜悰至渝州,順勢於江陵、荊門奠祭李德裕歸櫬時,回程所作之詩的可能性較高。

English Abstract

This paper discusses the precise date and its intended addressee of Jingmen Xixia 荊門西下, a poem written by a late Tang poet named Li Shangyin 李商隱(812-858). The poem was first dated by Cheng Mengxing 程夢星as finished in the first month of 848 when Li Shangyin passed Jingmen, a place on his returning route from Jiangling 江陵, where he had been assigned to in month of the previous year. Later, Feng Hao 馮浩and Zhang Ertian 張爾田commented that this poem was completed during the so-called 「The Tour of Ba Shu 巴蜀」 in the summer of 848 (the second year of Dazhong 大中 reign) when Li returned from Guilin 桂林to the capital. Following Cen Zhongmin’s 岑仲敏reversal of this argument, the contemporary Liu Xuekai 劉學鍇 Yu Shucheng 余恕誠 explained and believed that this poem was written at Jingmen in 847 when Li Shangyin passed Jiangling on his way to the destination of Guiguan 桂管. However as this paper indicates, the afore-claimed summer time when the poem was completed is contradictory to the time, between the tenth to the second month of the following year, when Li was assigned to Jiangling, Moreover, the afore-claimed route is out of accordance with the returning trip going southward to Guiguan. To go westward to Jingmen, Li had to first return to Jiangling then go westward to Ba 巴、 Shu蜀 . This paper also argues that in the fall of 848 (the eighth month of the second year of Dazhong reign), Li Shangyin was accompanying a prefect named Zheng Ya 鄭亞 to Xunzhou 循州 from where he returned to the capital after the ninth day of the ninth month. From Xunzhou to the capital, it was already early winter when he passed Jiangling. This is totally unmatchable with the season and direction as described in the poem. In addition, although it was in the summer that Li started his trip from Changan 長安to Guiguan, he did not go through Jiangling 、Jingmen to Tanzhou潭州 and from there to Guiguan; he in fact went from Changan、Luoyang 洛陽 via waterway along the Yangtzu 揚子River to Tanzhou, and then to Guiguan. This trip excluded the possibility of passing by Jingmen、Jiangling. According to the poem of Jingmen Xixia, it was not composed during Li’s trip back and forth between Changan and Guilin via Jiangling【between the first and the second year of Dazhong (848)】, or during the so-called 「The Tour of Ba Shu」when he was assigned to Jiangling; it was rather composed at a different time. Finally, the author argues it was highly possible that the poem was completed in the sixth year of Dazhong reign (852) when Li Shangyin, then prefect of Zizhou 梓州 was assigned to send Du Cong 杜悰 to Yuzhou 渝州. While on the way he worshipped the late Li Deyu 李德裕as the latter’s coffin was returned home. Li composed the poem on his way back.

Topic Category 人文學 > 人文學綜合
社會科學 > 社會科學綜合
社會科學 > 教育學