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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 84 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 石慶得、蘇永生 (1992) 兒童對環境認知之地圖學研究-兒童之地圖學系列研究(一),地圖,3,1-42。
  2. 石慶得、聞祝達、陳慧芳 (2004) 國小高年級學童地圖能力分析與學習能力指標擬定之研究─兒童之地圖學系列研究(四),地圖,14,1-20。
  3. 江映瑩 (2007) Google Earth 應用於中學地理教育之研究,國立台灣大學地理環境資源學系碩士論文。
  4. 邱名秀 (2005) 地理資訊系統教學對國小四年級學童空間認知的影響,台北市立師範學院社會科教育研究所碩士論文。
  5. 李明燕 (2000) 台灣地區高中地圖教育之理論探究-地形圖之教與學。台灣師範大學地理研究所博士論文。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳韋任(2011)。高中職教師GIS研習推廣之探索性研究。臺灣大學地理環境資源學研究所學位論文。2011。1-88。 
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