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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 82 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳明隆、葛建志(2006)。國民小學學生數學歸因信念、數學態度、數學焦慮與數學成就之相關研究。高雄師大學報,21 (3),1-18。
  2. 李茂能(2008)。SEM適配度指標的潛藏問題:最佳模式難求。測驗統計年刊,16 (2),17-30。
  3. 林志哲(2007)。以結構方程模式驗證期望、價值與數學成就的關係。國立高雄師範大學教育學刊,29,103-127。
  4. 林亮雯(2004)。James S. Coleman社會資本論及其教育應用-TEPS之檢證。國立臺灣師範大學碩士論文。未出版,台北市。
  5. 林姿諭(2007)。數學焦慮認知與情意影響數學內在動機、自我概念與成就之模式:以PISA 2003香港資料為例。國立政治大學碩士論文。未出版,台北市。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳代榕(2013)。建構式數學政策效果評估--以TIMSS為例。臺灣大學經濟學研究所學位論文。2013。1-51。 
  2. 王成元(2012)。以認知診斷模型分析台灣與亞洲四國(地區)八年級學生在TIMSS 2007的數學學習成就表現:以DINA模型為例。臺灣師範大學數學系學位論文。2012。1-240。
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