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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 57 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. 台南市復興國中教學團隊(2009)。咱ㄟ吳郭魚。擷取自二/(一)/3/咱ㄟ吳郭魚.pdf
  2. 2. 台灣環境資訊協會(2011)。關渡自然保留區(關渡濕地):臺北市唯一自然保留區。擷取自
  3. 3. 何浩維(2011)。地下流式人工濕地水質模式敏感度分析研究。碩士論文。台北市:國立臺灣大學生物環境系統工程學研究所。
  4. 4. 林信一、陳家浩(2013)。pH對濕地的水生植物處理和能源回收影響之研究。擷取自
  5. 5. 林信輝、李明儒、孫明德、黃俊仁(2003)。生物整合指標(IBI)之應用探討。水土保持學報,35(1),81-96。
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