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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 95 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 向駿,〈當前拉美發展的危機〉,《全球政治評論》,第九期,2005年一月,頁135.
  2. 劉宗欣、林恭正,〈社會福利支出、國民年金與跨世代財政負擔〉,《台灣經濟預測與政策》,第二期,2003年3月,頁61-95。
  3. 謝明瑞,〈國民年金制度之比較〉,《華人經濟研究》,第二卷第一期,2004年3月,頁86-105。
  4. Barrientos, Armando, Pension Reform in Latin America, U.K: Ashgate , 1998, 265 pags.
  5. Barreto de Oliveira, and Francisco E., eds., Social Security systems in Latin America, Washington, D.C., The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994, 227 pags.
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 任雲楠(2009)。拉丁美洲公共年金民營化之研究。臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文。2009。1-100。 
  2. 鄭迺潔(2011)。名義式確定提撥制應用在社會保險和退休金之探討。淡江大學保險學系保險經營碩士班學位論文。2011。1-130。
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