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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 55 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 孫志麟、陳建銘 (2007)。學校組織編革中的教師關注 : 發展階段與類型分 析。師大學報, 52,159-180。
  2. 黃式輝 (1998)。即時群播遠距教學之教學發展研究 (未出版之碩士論文), 私立元智大學,桃園縣。
  3. 黃政傑(1991)。課程設計。台北: 東華書局。
  4. 陳建銘(2003)。國民小學教師對學校組織變革關注之研究-發展階段及其差異(未出版之碩士論文),國立台北師範學院,台北。
  5. 羅清水、林坤燦(2006)。融合教育「關注本位採用模式」理論建構及其試探 研究。東臺灣特殊教育學報,8,1-19。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張芷綾(2016)。跨校遠距實作課程對學習互動策略之研究。淡江大學教育科技學系數位學習碩士在職專班學位論文。2016。1-113。
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