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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 451 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 何慶煌(2007)。創業精神與經濟指標之關聯性的實證研究-以台灣近十年之經濟指標為探討主體。大同大學事業經營研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北。
  2. 李政、趙都敏(2007)。經濟學中的創業研究︰一個歷史性的回顧。創業管理研究,2(1),89-110。
  3. 林志維(2002)。競爭策略、技術環境、技術創新與技術績效之關係研究-以電子高科技業與化工業為研究對象。國立成功大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,未出版,台南。
  4. 林南宏、何慶煌(2007)。創業精神與經濟指標的關聯性研究:1996~2005的實證分析。創業管理研究,2(4),113-142。
  5. 林陽助、葉華容(2003)。顧客關係、服務品質流程、服務品質與顧客忠誠度之互動性研究-以網路購物為例。東吳經濟商學學報,11,41-71。
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