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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 204 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 2.王榮春、陳彰儀(民92)•部屬觀點之領導互動論:部屬對主管領導行為的知覺因素與互動內涵初探•應用心理研究,20(冬),頁181-215。
  2. 17.戚樹誠(民85)•企業親信角色之實證研究•中山管理評論,4(1),頁1-15。
  3. 19.陳彩鳳(民95),上下屬間的距離對其溝通與信任之影響研究•長榮大學經營管理研究所95學年度博士論文。
  4. 33.黃應貴(民84)•空間、力與社會•中央研究院民族學研究所。
  5. 35.楊中芳(民90)•人際關係與人際情感的概念化•楊中芳(主編)•中國人的人際關係、情感與信任。台北:遠流。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 褚嘉慧(2012)。「雙導師制」園長家長式領導與信任關係之研究---以台灣地區為例。朝陽科技大學幼兒保育系學位論文。2012。1-203。
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