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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 20 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 皮世明、劉昱志(2009)。即時通訊軟體使用對於組織溝通滿意影響之研究,電子商務學報,11(4),697-722。
  2. Armstrong, A. G. & Hagel, J. (1997). Net gain: Expanding markets through virtual communi-ties. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 13(1), 55-65.
  3. Cameron, A. F., and Webster, J.. (2005) Unintended Consequences of Emerging Communication Technologies :Instant Messaging in the Workplace. Computers in Human Behavior 25(1), 85-103.
  4. Gummerus, J., Pihlstrom, M. (2011). Context and mobile services’ value-in-use. Journal of Retailing and ConsumerServices.
  5. Katz, E., J. G. Blumler & M. Gurevitch, (1974), Utilizaton of Mass Communicaton by Individual. pp. 19-32 in J. G. Blumler & E. Katz (eds.). The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research. Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 白清文(2014)。現場工程師使用行動即時通訊軟體進行組織溝通之研究─以LINE為例─。中原大學資訊管理研究所學位論文。2014。1-88。 
  2. 楊士弘(2014)。探討沉浸經驗對青年使用通訊軟體的使用者行為研究-以通訊軟體LINE為例。朝陽科技大學企業管理系學位論文。2014。1-87。
  3. 陳志庭(2017)。即時通訊軟體使用對國軍工作績效之影響之研究。朝陽科技大學企業管理系學位論文。2017。1-49。
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