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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 58 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 莊淑如(2008)。虛擬教具融入國小二年級位值概念補救教學之研究。中原大學教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,桃園市。
  2. 黃惠禪(2003)。國小一年級學童數學能力之研究。國立臺灣師範大學人類發展與 家庭研究所碩土論文,未出版,台北。
  3. Brown, J. S. & Burton, R. R. (1978). Diagnostic models for procedual bugs in basic
  4. Carpenter, T. P., Franke, M. L., Jacobs, V. R., Fennema, E.,& Empson, S. B. (1997). A longitudinal study of invention and understanding in children’s multidigit addition and subtraction. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 29(1), 3-20
  5. Cauley, K. M. (1988). Construction of logical Knowledge:Study of borrowing in Subtraction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 202-205.
Times Cited (9) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張瑋尹(2015)。森林遊樂區遊客對森林議題與環境態度認知之探討-以新化與惠蓀林場為例。中興大學森林學系所學位論文。2015。1-179。 
  2. 吳采蓉(2010)。知本遊客的休閒涉入與體驗品質對遊憩滿意度影響之研究。臺東大學進修部運動休閒管理碩(假日)學位論文。2010。1-93。 
  3. 邱馨凰(2008)。登山者早期戶外經驗與環境態度之關係研究。屏東科技大學休閒運動保健系所學位論文。2008。1-81。 
  4. 林子筠(2017)。訪客對陽明山國家公園磺嘴山生態保護區環境教育價值認知與環境素養探討。臺灣大學森林環境暨資源學研究所學位論文。2017。1-125。 
  5. 陳寬裕(Kuan-Yu Chen);簡翊芬(Yi-Fen Jian);歐典灝(Tien-Hao Ou)(2013)。遊憩涉入、場所依戀與環境責任行為關係之研究:以水肺潛水活動為例。休閒產業管理學刊。6(2)。1-22。 
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