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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 190 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王書輝(2007)。反切注音的承繼與創新注音符號。歷史月刊,234,128-131。
  2. 王梅軒、黃瑞珍(2005)。國小課程本位閱讀測量方法之信度與效度研究。特殊教育研究學刊,29,73-94。
  3. 石國鈺(2009)。現行國小語文教育的缺失與改善途徑。台北市:秀威資訊科技。
  4. 林建平(2010)。低成就學童的家庭環境與自我調整學習之研究。新竹教育大學教育學報,27(1),93-126。
  5. 吳佳蓉、張德勝(2003)。隔代教養學生與非隔代教養學生學校生活適應之比較。花蓮師院學報,16,109-133。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 賴小萍(2010)。行政區劃調整之研究-以新北市行政區域重整為例。政治大學行政管理碩士學程學位論文。2010。1-206。
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