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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 51 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 行政院主計處(民76)。中華民國時間運用調查報告。
    2. 行政院主計處(民79)。中華民國時間運用調查報告。
    3. 行政院主計處(民83)。中華民國時間運用調查報告。
    4. 行政院主計處(民90)。中華民國八十九年台灣地區社會發展趨勢調查報告。
    5. 行政院主計處(民94)。中華民國九十三年台灣地區社會發展趨勢調查報告-時間運用。
    Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
    1. 郭芳琪(2015)。國中生文化資本、時間管理與學習態度關係之研究-以桃園市為例。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2015。1-268。 
    2. 黃至賢(2009)。國小學童課後進行環境活動之探討─以時間運用調查。臺灣師範大學環境教育研究所學位論文。2009。1-97。
    3. 張秋玉(2016)。探討社會支持與台灣中部大學護生自我導向學習之相關性。中山醫學大學護理學系學位論文。2016。1-91。
    Altmetrics 〈TOP〉
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