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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 93 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王子華、王國華、王瑋龍、黃世傑(2002)。大學普通生物學後設認知量表的發展。測驗統計年刊,10,75-100。
  2. 江美娟、周臺傑(2003)。後設認知引導策略教學對國小數學學習障礙學生解題成效之研究。特殊教育學報,18,107-151。
  3. 何玉婷(2005)。探討不同教學方式對高中學習四季概念的影響。國立台灣師範大學地球科學系科學研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北。
  4. 何宗穎、黃台珠(2006)。在以設計為本的科學探究過程中學生科學本質改變之研究。中華民國第22屆科學教育學術研討會。台北市:國立台灣師範大學科學教育研究所。
  5. 吳佳蓮、吳心楷(2006)。科學探究活動中國小五年級兒童科學解釋能力及實務認識論之研究。中華民國第22屆科學教育學術研討會。台北市:國立台灣師範大學科學教育研究所。
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