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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 47 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 力雜誌, 91-98。
  2. 國立台灣師範大學體育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
  3. 李明榮。(民86)。從生活型態看休閒文化演進。師友,336期,4-9。
  4. 林忠程。(民84)。台北市游泳運動俱樂部市場區隔之研究。國立體育學院體育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
  5. Armistead , C .G .(1985). Design of service operations ,
Times Cited (15) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉文義(2011)。公立游泳池自營與委外經營之服務品質與顧客滿意度之關係。樹德科技大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2011。1-85。 
  2. 王新億(2012)。臺中市國民小學游泳教學實施現況、滿意度、困擾程度之關係研究。中臺科技大學健康產業管理研究所學位論文。2012。1-146。 
  3. 黃淑美(2003)。台北縣國中教師對教務行政品質需求及滿意狀況之研究。臺灣師範大學教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2003。1-138。
  4. 黃文松(2005)。學校游泳池使用者服務品知覺之研究-以台北縣立高中為例。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2005。1-77。
  5. 劉記杆(2005)。國立高中職游泳池委外經營之顧客滿意度研究。亞洲大學經營管理學系碩士班學位論文。2005。1-152。
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