Search & Read at all times.
Your portable library is online!,Hello!
Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Previous Page
Next Page
There is no full-text available at the moment. Airiti would like to request author's authorization. I would like to provide authorization.
Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 105 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 2.Brown, M. T., Herendeen, R. A., 1996, “Embodied Energy Analysis and EMERGY Analysis: A Comparative view”, Ecological Economics, 19(3): 219-235.
  2. 4.British Standards Institution (BSI) British Standards, 2008, “Guide to PAS 2050, How to assess the carbon footprint of goods and services”.
  3. 5.Carbon Trust, 2006, Carbon footprints in the supply chain: the next step for business, The Carbon Trust, UK.
  4. 7.Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), 2008, “Development of an embedded carbon emissions indicator”, London.
  5. 9.Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), 2004, “Review of Carbon Emission Factors in the UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory”.
Times Cited (8) 〈TOP〉
  1. 范詩怡(2012)。企業產品足跡暨碳標準管理模式之研究。交通大學管理學院資訊管理學程學位論文。2012。1-63。 
  2. 陳明文(2011)。臺灣氫氣生產生命週期評估及物質流分析。屏東科技大學環境工程與科學系所學位論文。2011。1-134。 
  3. 張宥勝(2011)。行政區域再生能源政策推動效益分析-以澎湖低碳島規劃太陽能應用導入為例。清華大學工業工程與工程管理學系學位論文。2011。1-65。
  4. 黃文歆(2013)。台灣地區鋰電池物質流分析研究。臺北大學自然資源與環境管理研究所學位論文。2013。1-85。
  5. 盧紀瑋(2014)。物質流成本會計分析-以晶圓製造廠為例。臺北大學自然資源與環境管理研究所學位論文。2014。1-108。
Altmetrics 〈TOP〉
E-mail :
When an article is available to download, a notice will be sent to your mailbox address.
E-mail :