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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 70 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 王天苗 (1999)。發展遲緩幼兒融合式幼教模式之建立與實施成效之
    2. 王正幸(2008)。澎湖縣國中普通班教師特殊教育專業知能成長需求研
    3. 張春興(1989)。張式心理學辭典。台北:東華
    4. 張素貞(2004)。國民小學身心障礙資源班教師專業成長之研究—以知能分析和方案規劃為例。國立臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系博士論文,未出版,台北市。
    5. 黃嘉紋。臺北市幼稚園特教巡迴輔導教師在融合教育中角色職責與專業成長需求之研究。國立臺北教育大學特殊教育學系碩士班論文,未出版,台北市
    Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
    1. 鄭麗霞(2014)。新北市國中融合班教師對自閉症學生 師生互動與教學效能之研究。臺北科技大學技術及職業教育研究所學位論文。2014。1-137。
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