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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 122 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 文超順(2008)。國民小學超額教師人力資源運用方案之研究(未出版博士論文)。國立政治大學,臺北市。
  2. 任廷芬(2011)。臺中市國民小學教師兼任行政職務工作壓力與因應策略之研究(未出版碩士論文)。中臺科技大學,臺中市。
  3. 牟鍾福(2002)。國中體育教師組織正義與組織信任對組織承諾影響之研究(未出版博士論文)。國立臺灣師範大學,台北市。
  4. 余鑑、于俊傑、蔡尚鈞、劉曾若(2011)。人力資源管理對組織承諾之影響—以敬業貢獻度為中介變項。創新研發學刊,7(1),75-89。
  5. 吳宗立(1996)。國中學校行政人員工作壓力與困應策略之研究。國教學報,8,99-131
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉志城(2016)。台灣南部地區學前巡迴輔導教師工作壓力產生原因及其因應策略之研究。國立臺北教育大學教育經營與管理學系學位論文。2016。1-236。
  2. 郭怡吟(2016)。臺北市公立國民小學兼任行政職務教師工作壓力與情緒性飲食之研究。淡江大學教育科技學系數位學習碩士在職專班學位論文。2016。1-135。
  3. 黃麗燕(2017)。高雄市國民小學校長正向領導與教師組織承諾關係之研究。中山大學教育研究所學位論文。2017。1-180。
  4. 張簡頎倫(2018)。國小教師兼任行政人員之工作壓力與組織承諾之關係研究:以高雄市為例。義守大學管理碩博士班學位論文。2018。1-83。
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