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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 96 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 司徒達賢 (1995) 策略管理。遠流出版公司,273頁。
  2. 李宗勳 (2004) 公私協力與委外化的效應與價值:一項進行中的治理改造工程。公共行政學報 12: 41-77。
  3. 杜佩蘭、曾榮豐、黃英忠、施瑞峰 (2009)領導行為、組織學習與組織認同關係之研究。管理實務與理論研究 3(1): 45-67。
  4. 林丙輝、張嘉孟、劉雪華 (1997) 台灣國際觀光旅館規模經濟與範疇經濟之研究。觀光研究學報3(2): 1-15。
  5. 林昀儂 (2006) 產業鏈圖之建構方法研究。國立成功大學工業設計學系碩士論文,61頁。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳余晟(2013)。探討私有林主成立合作經營組織之歷程-以南投縣永隆林業生產合作社為例。屏東科技大學森林系所學位論文。2013。1-92。 
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