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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 105 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 方同賢(2009)。優秀軟式網球選手之運動心理堅韌性。北體學報,18,13-23。
  2. 王潔玲(2008)。籃球選手知覺動機氣候與運動員倦怠之研究。運動教練科學,12,1-12。
  3. 吳穌、林紀玲(2009)。運動員焦慮量表編製。真理大學運動知識學報,6,45-57。
  4. 呂青山(2010)。大專籃球選手運動目標取向、運動員訓練能力與運動員自信心來源模式之研究。輔仁大學體育學刊,9,105-120。
  5. 李安忠、盧俊宏、聶喬齡(2001)。運動員的自我呈現與特質性焦慮關係之探討。大專體育,52,18-24。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李冠逸(2016)。大專院校競技啦啦隊選手參與動機與運動倦怠對退出意圖之預測研究。中正大學運動與休閒教育研究所學位論文。2016。1-104。
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