Title

小國面對強鄰主權需索下之擺盪現象:台海及烏俄主權衝突之案例分析

Translated Titles

The Oscillation of Small States When Confronting A Stronger Neighbor with Sovereignty Demand - The Cases of Taiwan Strait and Ukraine-Russia Relations

DOI

10.6342/NTU201603192

Authors

賴沂廷

Key Words

擺盪現象 ; 國力不對稱 ; 戰略姿態 ; 烏俄關係 ; 兩岸關係 ; Small States ; Oscillation of Strategic Postures ; Power Asymmetry ; Ukraine-Russia Relations ; Cross-Strait Relations

PublicationName

臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2016年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

明居正

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

擺盪現象在小國應對大國的學術研究當中,一直是一個描述性重於理論性的輔助概念。儘管許多研究者觀察到了擺盪現象,但是他們仍然認為,一個受到強鄰威脅的小國會依據自身與外部條件,從廣義的抗衡與扈從當中選擇一回應選項來進行應對。然而,外部環境的條件未必足夠明確,小國面臨到的狀況可能是一條件模糊的灰色地帶,這將使小國無法精準判斷自身與外部條件,從而無法採取一優勢的回應選項。本文認為,唯有將灰色地帶與擺盪現象帶入既有的小國理論當中,我們才能更精準地理解並解釋小國的應對作為,而小國戰略姿態演變模式則嘗試要完成此一任務。 小國戰略姿態演變模式認為,小國與大國的互動都可歸入共12種戰略姿態演變情境當中,而大國的威脅程度與小國所擁有的物質條件會決定小國處在怎樣的演變情境。整體而言,當大國的威脅程度越高,小國越可能採取極端選項,反之,小國越可能採取中間選項。此外,外國支持程度的高低則決定小國究竟會採取對抗型選項、讓步型選項或是在兩者間擺盪。最後,小國的經濟發展程度會影響小國受國際力量短期干預的敏感度。 1991年以後的烏克蘭與1979年以後的台灣剛好分屬兩種不同的演變情境。蘇聯崩解後,俄羅斯仍對烏克蘭懷有主權野心,但是宥於國力,只能對烏克蘭帶來低度威脅,然而,歐美在2014年以前,始終沒有對烏克蘭敞開歐盟與北約的會員資格大門,這讓經濟發展落後的烏克蘭陷於「低度威脅下的被動擺盪期」。在中共改採「和平統一」戰略方針以後,台灣就一直處在低度威脅情境當中,然而,美國也終止了《中美共同防禦條約》,經濟發展佔優的台灣因而失去美國的絕對奧援,被迫從「中度威脅下的高成本持續期」轉入「低度威脅下的主動擺盪期」。隨著中國大陸的經濟發展程度逐漸進逼,台灣未來很可能在2020年以後喪失經濟發展程度的優勢,並轉入「低度威脅下的兩可擺盪期」,屆時,美國與中共的力量將更可能介入台灣政局、台灣的擺盪頻率將會提高、台灣的政治穩定度甚至會出現衰退。

English Abstract

The oscillation of states’ behaviors has long been treated in the academic field of IR as a descriptive term rather than a theoretical concept. Many researchers are aware of the phenomenon of states’ oscillation but still choose to believe that small states confronting a stronger neighbor would accurately recognize the pertinent conditions and decisively take a strategic posture between the so-called balancing and bandwagoning. However, conditions which a small state faces are not necessarily as clear as crystal. There are some gray areas where conditions are obscure, and small states are unable to identify a preferable choice. From the viewpoint of this thesis, only when the concept of oscillation and gray areas are integrated into the existing theories can we better understand and explain the responding behaviors of small states towards a strong neighboring country. According to the “Progression of Strategic Postures” theory, small states’ response towards the strong neighbor with sovereignty demand can all be classified into twelve progression scenarios. The level of external threat posed by the strong neighbor and the level of physical resources possessed by the small state would jointly decide the progression scenario which the small state is in. In short, the higher the external threat is, the more extreme the responding options will be; conversely, the lower the external threat is, the more moderate the responding options will be. In addition, the level of foreign supports will decide which the small state will do between continuously taking confrontation-based options, continuously taking concession-based options and wavering among the afore-mentioned two options. Lastly, the level of economic development will decide the small state’s fragility of international intervention. The Ukraine case, which starts in 1991, and the Taiwan case, which starts in 1979, belong to two different progression scenarios. Russia still held sovereignty ambition towards Ukraine after the Soviet Union had been dissolved, but Russia was bounded by its weaker national power and could only pose low-level threat to Ukraine. The West, on the other hand, had not given the green light to Ukraine’s EU and NATO membership before 2014. It caused the economically disadvantaged Ukraine unable to get away from the Passive Oscillation Period of Lower Threat. Taiwan has long been under low-level threat since the PRC adopted the strategy of Peaceful Unification and under medium-level support since the USA terminated Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty. The economically prosperous Taiwan was thus forced to enter the Autonomous Progression Period of Low Threat. As the mainland China keeps growing economically at speed, Taiwan could lose the advantage of economical development and be forced to enter the Neutral Progression Period of Low Threat. At that point, the USA and the PRC will be more likely to intervene in Taiwan’s internal political process, Taiwan’s oscillation frequency will start to rise, and Taiwan’s political stability will drop.

Topic Category 社會科學院 > 政治學研究所
社會科學 > 政治學
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  86. Womack, Brantly. 2006. China and Vietnam: The Politics of Asymmetry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  87. 三、 中文期刊
  88. 王大成,1991,〈烏克蘭新組建的政黨和組織〉,《俄羅斯中亞東歐研究》,5(19):89-91。
  89. 王慶平,2011,〈影響俄羅斯與烏克蘭關係的地緣經濟因素解析〉,《西伯利亞研究》,38(5):65-67。
  90. 白千文,2009,〈從「自由民主」到「可控民主」:俄羅斯政治體制改革的經濟學解析與啟示〉,《俄羅斯研究》,158:62-68。
  91. 何衛,2014,〈烏克蘭危機的內外因素分析〉,《當代世界》,2:43;European Union. 2014. “Chronology of Bilateral Relations.” in http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/ukraine/eu_ukraine/chronology/index_en.htm。
  92. 張弘,2009,〈試析烏克蘭與俄羅斯關係中的經濟因素〉,《俄羅斯東亞中歐研究》,2:67-74
  93. 陳祥生,2008,〈我國現階段經濟發展水平的國比較〉,《新視野》,5:37-38。
  94. 楊恕、朱倍德,2013,〈後蘇聯時期俄烏關係中的歷史、文化因素〉,《俄羅斯研究》,183,http://202.120.85.33/Jweb_elsyj/fileup/HTML/2013-5-2.shtml,2016/1/6。
  95. 四、 英文期刊
  96. 五、 其他中文紙本資料
  97. 王慶平,2011,《俄羅斯與烏克蘭關係研究》,哈爾濱:黑龍江大學博士學位論文。
  98. 唐欣偉,2000,《強鄰威脅下小國應對策略模式之個案研究》,台北:台大政治學研究所碩士論文。
  99. 陳欣之,2006,《抗衡、扈從、交往或卸責-東協國家應對中國崛起的研究》,台北:行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫。
  100. 六、 其他英文紙本資料
  101. Zaborsky, Victor. 1995. “Crimea and the Black Sea Fleet in Russian-Ukrainian Relations.” CSIA and Harvard University Discussion Paper 95(11): 1-34.
  102. 七、 中文網路資料
  103. 中國評論月刊,2009,〈胡錦濤區分兩類矛盾正式為台灣意識平反〉,http://hk.crntt.com/crn-webapp/mag/docDetail.jsp?coluid=23&docid=100851282&page=1,2009/1/8。
  104. 中華人民共和國國家統計局,2016,〈中國統計年鑑〉,http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/,2016/7/15。
  105. 中華民國外交部,〈九十二年七月至九月中共打壓我國外交及NGOs活動事例〉,http://www.mofa.gov.tw/Upload/RelFile/645/28246/35702175-f9d1-4e42-95f1-9648ed825e17.pdf,2016/7/11。
  106. 中華民國外交部,2013,〈「國際民航組織」(ICAO)邀請我出席本(102)年大會〉,https://www.motc.gov.tw/ch/home.jsp?id=14&parentpath=0,2&mcustomize=news_view.jsp&dataserno=201309130001,2013/9/13。
  107. 中華民國行政院大陸委員會,2001,〈「積極開放、有效管理」政策說明〉,http://www.mac.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=68176&ctNode=6621&mp=1,2001/11/7。
  108. 中華民國行政院大陸委員會,2011,〈陸委會:「九二共識」就是「擱置爭議、務實協商」〉,http://www.mac.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=100556&ctNode=5649&mp=1,2015/4/20。
  109. 中華民國行政院大陸委員會,2014,〈兩岸大事紀〉,http://www.mac.gov.tw/np.asp?ctNode=6500&mp=1,2014/7/19。
  110. 李華球,2004,〈台海軍事衝突時美國干預之可能性分析:以1995-1996台海飛彈危機為例〉,《國家政策論壇》,http://old.npf.org.tw/monthly/0401/theme-099.htm,2004/1。
  111. 財團法人國家政策研究基金會,2001,〈何謂「九二共識」〉,http://old.npf.org.tw/PUBLICATION/NS/090/NS-B-090-001.htm,2015/4/14。
  112. 國立政治大學選舉研究中心,2014,〈臺灣民眾統獨立場趨勢分佈〉,http://esc.nccu.edu.tw/app/news.php?Sn=167#,2015/4/17。
  113. 國際貿易局,2016,〈中華民國進出口貿易統計〉,http://cus93.trade.gov.tw/fsci/,2016/7/17。
  114. 陳一新,2013,〈和中友日親美 馬戰略清晰〉,《國政評論》,http://www.npf.org.tw/1/11948,2013/2/6。
  115. 陳嘉彰,2004,〈陳水扁總統和平公投議題新聞發展評析〉,http://old.npf.org.tw/PUBLICATION/EC/093/EC-B-093-001.htm,2004/1/9。
  116. 陳錫蕃、何志勇,2011,〈廿年前我國加入APEC的經緯〉,國政基金會,http://www.npf.org.tw/3/9993,2015/4/15。
  117. 黃嘉樹,2008,〈和平發展與大陸對台戰略的調整〉,《中國評論》,http://hk.crntt.com/doc/1008/4/4/6/100844635.html?coluid=33&kindid=543&docid=100844635&mdate=1231114929,2008/12/31。
  118. 經濟部投資審議委員會,2015,〈104年3月統計月報〉,http://www.moeaic.gov.tw/system_external/ctlr?PRO=PublicationLoad&id=203,2015/4/20。
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  120. 趙晨,2014,〈歐盟與烏克蘭關係回顧〉,中國社會科學院歐洲研究所,http://big5.qstheory.cn/gate/big5/www.qstheory.cn/zhuanqu/bkjx/2014-06/03/c_1110972403.htm,2014/6/3。
  121. 潘錫堂,2002,〈從中共回應看「一邊一國論」對兩岸的影響〉,《國政評論》,http://old.npf.org.tw/PUBLICATION/NS/091/NS-C-091-374.htm,2002/8/6。
  122. 魏鏞,2002,〈「主權對等」挽回「一邊一國」〉,《國政評論》,http://old.npf.org.tw/PUBLICATION/NS/091/NS-C-091-376.htm,2002/8/8。
  123. 八、 英文網路資料
  124. Arms Control Association. 2012. “U.S. Conventional Arms Sales to Taiwan.“ in https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/taiwanarms Latest update October 2012.
  125. Congress. 2016. “H.Con.Res.88 - Reaffirming the Taiwan Relations Act and the Six Assurances as cornerstones of United States-Taiwan relations.” in https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/house-concurrent-resolution/88/text/eh Latest update 16 May 2016.
  126. European Union. 2014. “Chronology of Bilateral Relations.” in http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/ukraine/eu_ukraine/chronology/index_en.htm.
  127. FAPA Library. 2016. “1994 Taiwan Policy Review.” in http://www.fapa.org/generalinfo/TPR1994.html Latest update 10 July 2016.
  128. Federation of American Scientists. 2008. “Nukes in the Taiwan Crisis.” in http://fas.org/blogs/security/2008/05/nukes-in-the-taiwan-crisis/ Latest update 13 May 2008.
  129. Gazprom. 2013. “Europe.” in http://www.gazprom.com/about/marketing/europe/;British Broadcasting Corporation. 2006. “Ukraine Gas Row Hits EU Supplies.” in http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4573572.stm Latest update 1 January 2006.
  130. Global Firepower. 2016. “Global Firepower.” in http://www.globalfirepower.com/ Latest update 15 August 2016.
  131. Global Security. 2014. “Ukrainian Navy History.” in http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/ukraine/vms-hist.htm Latest Update 27 March 2014.
  132. GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. 2005. “The Chisinau Declaration of the GUUAM Heads of States ‘In the Name of Democracy, Stability and Development’.” in http://guam-organization.org/en/node/438 Latest update 17 July 2016.
  133. GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. 2008. “Batumi Declaration ‘GUAM - Integrating Europe’s East’.” in http://guam-organization.org/en/node/379 Latest update 17 July 2016.
  134. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 2012. “Signatures of Partnership for Peace Framework Document.” in http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_82584.htm Latest Update 10 January 2012.
  135. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 2013. “Ukraine Contributes to NATO’s Ocean Shield.” in http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/news_103997.htm Latedt update 10 October 2013.
  136. Razumkov Center. 2009. “How Would You Vote if the Referendum on Ukraine’s NATO Accession Was Held the Following Sunday?” in http://razumkov.org.ua/eng/poll.php?poll_id=46 Latest update 11 July 2016.
  137. U.S.-Ukraine Business Council. 2012. “CIS Free Trade Agreement Comes into Force.” in http://www.usubc.org/site/member-news/cis-free-trade-agreement-comes-into-force Latest update 18 October 2012.
  138. United Nations. 2015. “World Population Prospects, the 2015 Revision.” in https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Download/Standard/Population/ Latest update July 2015.
  139. World Bank. 1993. “Free Trade Agreement between Ukraine and Russian Federation.” in http://wits.worldbank.org/GPTAD/PDF/archive/russia-ukraine.pdf 24 June 1993.
  140. Yanulovych, Viktor. 2010. “President Viktor Yanukovych's Inauguration Address to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.” President of Ukraine in http://www.president.gov.ua/en/news/16600.html Latest update 25 February 2010.
  141. 九、 中文新聞類
  142. BBC中文網,2006,〈陳水扁回程不過境美國阿拉斯加〉,http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_4750000/newsid_4754100/4754197.stm,2006/5/9。
  143. 北海居,2013,〈台海兩岸歷年國防預算(軍費支出)對比(1950-2013)〉,http://xxw3441.blog.163.com/blog/static/75383624201325105526932/,2015/4/12。
  144. 人民網,2007,〈阿扁「過境」阿拉斯加 不打領帶不下機以示抗議〉,http://tw.people.com.cn/BIG5/14812/14875/6149868.html,2007/8/22。
  145. 大紀元,2002,〈呂秀蓮:印尼行圓滿達成高難度高機密外交〉,http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/2/8/18/n209163.htm,2002/8/17。
  146. 大紀元,2007,〈陳水扁:聯合國排除台灣 猶如政治種族隔離〉,http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/7/7/20/n1778789.htm,2007/7/20。
  147. 大紀元,2007,〈陳水扁美國過境風波 美台各自解讀〉,http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/7/8/24/n1811921.htm,2007/8/23。
  148. 大紀元,2008,〈布什稱烏格入北約符合成員國利益〉,http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/8/4/1/n2066974.htm,2008/4/1。
  149. 中國評論新聞網,2007,〈陳水扁去年迷航 用「騙」降落荷蘭〉,http://hk.crntt.com/doc/1004/2/8/5/100428501.html?coluid=7&kindid=0&docid=100428501,2007/8/13。
  150. 中國評論新聞網,2009,〈俄羅斯天然氣公司證實已停止對烏克蘭供氣〉,http://hk.crntt.com/doc/7_0_100845734_1.html,2014/7/1。
  151. 中國新聞網,2008,〈胡錦濤:愛鄉愛土的台灣意識不等於「台獨」意識〉,http://www.chinanews.com/tw/kong/news/2008/12-31/1510397.shtml,2008/12/31。
  152. 台灣獨立建國聯盟,2016,〈防禦性公投到入聯公投台美關係年表〉,http://www.wufi.org.tw/%E9%98%B2%E7%A6%A6%E6%80%A7%E5%85%AC%E6%8A%95%E5%88%B0%E5%85%A5%E8%81%AF%E5%85%AC%E6%8A%95%E5%8F%B0%E7%BE%8E%E9%97%9C%E4%BF%82%E5%B9%B4%E8%A1%A8/,2016/1/2。
  153. 光明網,2003,〈俄羅斯總統普京發表國情咨文〉,http://www.gmw.cn/01gmrb/2003-05/18/27-477310083BBC88BC48256D290083B123.htm,2003/5/18。
  154. 自由時報,2007,〈加入UN公投提案 扁促大選時舉行〉,http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/paper/131740,2007/5/23。
  155. 自由時報,2007,〈郵政正名台灣 交部︰有助進軍國際〉,http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/focus/paper/115785,2007/02/10。
  156. 小英教育基金會,2013,〈又少了一個朋友〉,想想,http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/1460,2013/11/18。
  157. 美國之音,2003,〈普京國情咨文強調俄羅斯戰略任務〉,http://m.voachinese.com/a/a-21-a-2003-05-16-13-1-63416112/998846.html,2003/5/15。
  158. 華夏經緯網,2003,〈兩岸關係的新思維〉,http://big5.huaxia.com/thpl/lbyl/bfyl/04/42179.html,2003/4/3。
  159. 華夏經緯網,2008,〈美曾在臺秘密部署核武:台灣民眾始終不知情〉,http://big5.huaxia.com/thjq/jsgoucheng/2008/10/1196602.html,2008/10/22。
  160. 新京報,2013,〈歐盟拒絕烏克蘭200億歐元貸款 暫停入盟談判〉,http://news.163.com/13/1217/02/9G8VB3NI00014AEE.html?f=jsearch,2013/12/17。
  161. 新浪新聞中心,2001,〈2002年定為「烏克蘭年」 俄烏關係要有新突破〉,http://news.sina.com.cn/w/2001-12-11/416892.html,2001/12/11。
  162. 新浪網,2006,〈俄警告烏克蘭若加入北約將斷絕與其軍事合作〉,http://news.sina.com.cn/w/2006-06-15/130710163472.shtml,2006/6/15
  163. 新浪網,2010,〈烏克蘭通過內外政策原則法草案放棄加入北約〉,http://news.sina.com.cn/w/2010-07-06/143820621508.shtml,2010/7/6。
  164. 新浪網,2013,〈烏克蘭總理:與歐盟簽約條件是其提供200億貸款〉,http://dailynews.sina.com/bg/news/int/chinanews/20131211/01085257633.html,2013/12/11。
  165. 新浪歷史,2010,〈1994年6月8日,烏俄達成分割黑海艦隊協議〉,http://history.sina.com.cn/today/2010-10-21/164027448.shtml,2010/10/21。
  166. 新華社,2000,〈中共中央台辦、國務院台辦授權就兩岸關係問題發表聲明〉,http://www.people.com.cn/GB/channel1/10/20000520/71092.html,2000/5/20。
  167. 新華網,2008,〈多國軍事演習烏克蘭舉行〉,http://news.sina.com/int/mingpao/105-103-102-107/2008-07-14/17063070468.html,2008/7/14。
  168. 楊政,2004,〈烏克蘭真的不想加入北約了嗎〉,新華網,http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2004-06/18/content_1533504.htm,2004/6/18。
  169. 鳳凰網,2007,〈「海上微風2007」:13國聯合軍演堵著俄大門〉,http://news.ifeng.com/mil/4/detail_2007_07/13/451081_0.shtml,2007/7/13。
  170. 蘋果日報,2005,〈扁過美境被消影消音:留飯店接電話等人 彷彿沒踏足美國〉,http://www.appledaily.com.tw/appledaily/article/headline/20050922/2071993,2005/9/22。
  171. 十、 英文新聞類
  172. Associated Press. 2004. “Invisible Ink: How They Rigged the Vote.” Sydney Morning Herald in http://www.smh.com.au/news/World/Invisible-ink-how-they-rigged-the-vote/2004/12/02/1101923247133.html Latest update 2 December 2004.
  173. British Broadcast Corporation. 2008. “NATO Denies Georgia and Ukraine.” in http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7328276.stm Latest update 3 April 2008.
  174. British Broadcast Corporation. 2014. “Ukraine Crisis: Timeline.” in http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-26248275 Latest update 13 November 2014.
  175. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2007. “Q&A: Ukrainian Parliamentary Poll.” in http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7015947.stm Latest update 1 October 2007.
  176. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2008. “Russia in Ukraine Missile Threat.” in http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7241470.stm Latest update 12 February 2008.
  177. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2010. “Ukrainian Election Result Suspended after PM's Appeal.” in http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8519922.stm Latest update 17 February 2010.
  178. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2013. “Russia Offers Ukraine Major Economic Assistance.” in http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-25411118 Latest update 17 December 2013.
  179. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2014. “Why Crimea is so dangerous.” in http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-26367786 Latest update 11 March 2014.
  180. Cable News Network. 2010. “Russia, Ukraine Agree on Naval-Base-for-gas Deal.” in http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/europe/04/21/russia.ukraine/index.html?hpt=T2 Latest update 21 April 2010.
  181. EurActiv Network. 2013. “Putin ‘Deserves Medal’ for Pushing Ukraine towards EU.” in http://www.euractiv.com/europes-east/putin-deserved-medal-pushing-ukr-news-530038 Latest update 30 August 2013.
  182. Interfax-Ukraine. 2010. “Political analysts: Cancelation of 2004 political reform may deepen split in Ukraine.” Kyiv Post in http://www.kyivpost.com/content/politics/political-analysts-cancelation-of-2004-political-r-79746.html Latest update 25 August 2010.
  183. Interfax-Ukraine. 2013. “Ukrainian Government Issues Decree to Suspend Preparations for Signing of Association Agreement with EU.” in http://en.interfax.com.ua/news/general/176073.html Latest update 21 November 2013.
  184. Interfax-Ukraine. 2014. “Ukrainians Supporting NATO Membership in Minority – Poll.” in http://en.interfax.com.ua/news/general/204811.html Latest update 14 May 2014.
  185. Jim Mann. 1994. “U.S. Slightly Elevates Ties with Taiwan: Diplomacy: Policy Boosts Economic Contact but Keeps Tight Curbs On Official Relations. Taipei and Beijing Are Displeased.” Los Angeles Times in http://articles.latimes.com/1994-09-08/news/mn-36021_1_taiwan-officials Latest update 15 April 2015.
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  187. Kramer, Oleksandr. 2013. “Caught in a Zeitnot.” The Ukrainian Week in http://ukrainianweek.com/Politics/86079 Latest update 6 August 2013.
  188. Kyiv Post. 2010. “Cabinet Approves Action Plan for Annual National Program of Cooperation with NATO in 2010.” in http://www.kyivpost.com/content/politics/cabinet-approves-action-plan-for-annual-national-p-70823.html Latest update 24 Jane 2010.
  189. Kyiv Post. 2010. “NATO Considers Ukraine's Behavior 'Unprecedented'.” in http://www.kyivpost.com/content/ukraine/nato-considers-ukraines-behavior-unprecedented-67634.html Latest update 25 May 2010.
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  191. Kyiv Post. 2011. “Yanukovych: Ukraine Positively Evaluates Level of Relations with NATO.” in http://www.kyivpost.com/article/content/politics/yanukovych-ukraine-positively-evaluates-level-of-r-113232.html Latest update 21 September 2011.
  192. Kyiv Post. 2012. “Ukraine, NATO to Hole Security Exercises during Euro 2012.” in http://www.kyivpost.com/content/ukraine/ukraine-nato-to-hold-security-exercises-during-eur-124954.html Latest update 26 March 2012.
  193. Kyiv Post. 2013. “Russia Sets Off Trade War to Prevent Ukraine from Signing Agreement with EU, Says UDAR.” in http://www.kyivpost.com/content/ukraine/russia-sets-off-trade-war-to-prevent-ukraine-from-signing-agreement-with-eu-says-udar-328366.html Latest update 14 August 2013.
  194. Kyiv Post. 2013. “Ukraine's Employers Federation: Russia's Customs Service Halts All Ukrainian Imports.” in http://www.kyivpost.com/content/ukraine/ukraines-employers-federation-russias-customs-service-halts-all-ukrainian-imports-328360.html Latest update 14 August 2013.
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Times Cited
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