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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 83 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 4.王榮春、陳彰儀,2003,部屬觀點之領導互動論:部屬對主管領導行為的知覺因素與互動內涵初探,應用心理研究,第20期,PP. 181-215.
  2. 5.方平煌(2003),高階管理者的人格特質、領導風格對內控制度執行成效之影響研究,國立成功大學管理學院高階管理碩士在職專班碩士論文。
  3. 16.林滿祝(2002),交易式/轉換式領導風格對員工態度之關聯性研究-以親信關係及員工人格特質為情境變項,私立中原大學企業管學系碩士學位論文。
  4. 24.張家榦(2009),主管領導型態、組織鑲嵌、工作滿意度與工作績效之關聯性研究 ─以金融購併機構為例,淡江大學管理科學研究所碩士論文。
  5. 26.黃世忠(2002),組織結構、領導風格、員工個人特質、工作特性與工作滿足關係之研究-以中山科學研究院電子系統研究所為例,中原大學企業管理學系研究所碩士論文。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 閔大慶(2015)。正副主官領導風格、部屬工作滿足與團隊工作績效之關聯性研究-以空軍基地運輸部隊為例。中正大學高階主管管理碩士在職專班學位論文。2015。1-80。
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