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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 143 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王琦瑜(2006)。台北市國中生課業壓力與休閒需求之相關研究(未出版碩士論文)。國立臺灣師範大學,台北市。
  2. 王琦瑜、張少熙、張良漢(2007)。臺北市國中生課業壓力與休閒需求之相關研究。運動與遊憩研究,2(1),1-18。
  3. 王駿濠、張哲千、梁衍明、邱文聲、洪蘭、曾志朗、阮啟弘(2012)。運動對孩童認知功能及學業表現的影響:文獻回顧與展望。教育科學研究期刊,57(2),65-94.
  4. 吳淑女(1994)。青少年學生聯課活動參與與學業成就和教育期望之關係-中、美之比較。臺灣教育,523,24-29。
  5. 吳淑女(1995)。高中學生聯課活動參與其學業成就和教育展望關係之探討。戶外遊憩研究,8(1),29-42。
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