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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 18 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 中文文獻:1. 陳榮邦,問題導向數位學習在影像診斷學課程之應用。醫學教育,第八卷,第二期,2004;135-146。
  2. 3. 蔡崇元,網路教學者教學互動策略之研究。國立臺灣師範大學社會教育研究所碩士論文,2001。
  3. 6. 陳年興、林甘敏,網路學習之學習行為與學習成效分析。第十二屆國際資訊管理學術研討會,2001。
  4. 11. 郝德慧,運用合作學習理論探討以網路社群方式進行非同步數位學習之護理在職教育。臺北醫學大學醫學資訊研究所碩士論文,2004。 英文文獻:1. Joanne YP, Gary WN, Ren? JLM. Problem-Based Learning Using Web-Based Group Discussions: A Positive Learning Experience for Undergraduate Students. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001;1149-1154.
  5. 2. Arif NN, Patricia G, James JQ. Evaluation of an Interactive Case-based Online Network (ICON) in a Problem Based Learning Environment. Advances in Health Sciences Education 2005;10:215-230.
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