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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 139 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丁榮國(1999)。電視收視率量與質的探討。復興崗學報,67,191-222。
  2. 田耐青(2001)。『水果冰淇淋』兒童電視節目之形成性評鑑研究。國立台北師範學院學報,14,1-34。
  3. 張淑媛(2007)。國內體育台閱聽眾收視女子運動節目使用與滿足之研究。國立台灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所在職專班碩士論文。
  4. 郭貞(1997)。有線電視發展對觀眾收視行為之影響,跨世紀電視經營策略。台北:中華民國新聞評議委員會。
  5. 趙雅麗(2001年1月)。台灣地區視障者之媒介使用行為與動機調查研究。新聞學研究,66。2007年5月14日,取自:。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 周宇修(2009)。論公共廣電集團制度之建構-以平等使用媒體為核心。政治大學法律學研究所學位論文。2009。1-207。
  2. 陳奕安(2011)。幼兒對學前兒童節目觀點之研究─不同社經背景的比較。臺灣師範大學人類發展與家庭學系學位論文。2011。1-118。
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