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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 59 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李宗薇(2000)。教學設計理論與模式的評析及應用:以師院社會科教材教法為例(博士論文)。國立臺灣師範大學。
  2. 李美穗(2004)。數學教師行動研究能力之專業發展。
  3. 李源順、林福來、呂玉琴、陳美芳(2008)。小學教師數學教學發展標準之探究:學者的觀點. 科學教育學刊,第十六卷(第六期),627-650。
  4. 徐偉民、張敬苓(2008)。台灣不同時期國小數學課程能力指標之比較分析。台灣數學教師電子期刊,第十四期,27-47。
  5. 張春興(1999)。教育心理學。台北市:東華書局。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 郭宏榮(2018)。論正當行政程序在我國釋憲之發展 -以都市計畫相關大法官解釋為例-。臺灣大學國家發展研究所學位論文。2018。1-149。 
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