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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 127 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 行政院環境保護署(2009)。低碳家園推動策略研討會背景說明。低碳家園推動策略研討會。
  2. 呂春嬌、陳雪華、謝雨生(2009)。大學圖書館中階主管女性領導特質研究。國家圖書館館刊,98-1,23-54。
  3. 李婷立(2005)。高績效工作系統與組織公民行為之關係-以信任、組織承諾、責任感為仲介變數。國立成功大學國際企業研究所碩士論文,未出版,臺南市。
  4. 李諺亮(2014)。雲林縣國民小學校長轉型領導、學校組織氣氛與教師自我效能關係之研究。國立中正大學教育學研究所碩士論文,未出版,嘉義縣。
  5. 周宥均、曾信超(2009)。銀行主管五大人格特質與領導效能關係之研究。明新學報,35-2,115-130。
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