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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 111 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 方俊凱、 賴明亮、 呂欣芹、 林明慧與李佩怡(2010)。以照顧癌末病人之醫學倫理,建構醫師靈性成長課程。台灣癌症醫誌,26(3), 100-111。
  2. 方採勤(2006)。中部地區幼稚園促銷策略之研究(碩士論文)亞洲大學,台中市。
  3. 田白玉(2012)。幼兒園組織再造與經營策略之研究(未出版之碩士論文)私立中台科技大學,台中市。
  4. 沈致襄譯(2010)。Howard Gardner著。重構多元智能(Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences)。中國人民大學,大陸。
  5. 李國甄(2005)。幼稚園園長轉型領導對教師知識管理與創意教學表現之研究(碩士論文)私立朝陽科技大學,台中。
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