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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 95 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳慧卿(2001)。選手知覺教練領導行為、團隊衝突、團隊凝聚力及滿意度關係之實證研究。國立台灣師範大學體育研究所博士論文,未出版,台北。
  2. 林金杉(2002)。拔河運動教練領導行為與團隊凝聚力之相關研究。國立台灣體育學院體育研究所碩士論文,未出版,台中。
  3. 林振春(1997)。領導觀量表的編製及其在成人教育上的應用,國立臺灣師範大學社會教育學系社會教育學刊。26,129-150。
  4. 康自立(1999)。中國式領導模式之建構及在技職教育之應用研究。國科會專題研究計劃,計畫編號:NSC-86-2516-S-018-002-TG。
  5. 許義雄(1989)。運動教練的角色-就人本主義觀點談起。中華體育季刊,11,60-62。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王貞治(2012)。桃園縣國中乙級籃球代表隊教練領導行為與團隊凝聚力關係之研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2012。1-142。
  2. 朱芳德(2012)。臺北市中等學校田徑教練領導行為與運動員學習滿意度之研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2012。1-94。
  3. 陳奕縢(2013)。游泳教練領導行為對學習滿意度與游泳成效之探討-以僑泰中學為例。朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系學位論文。2013。1-101。
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