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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing a document with a DOI, the DOI permanent URL should always be presented (if using APA or Chicago format, present number). If using a citation format that does not specify DOI, the DOI permanent URL should still be presented as a priority.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 185 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 江麗玉(2001)。台灣地區女子體操選手隻絕教練領導行為與選手績效表現關係
  2. 吳慧卿(2001)。大學院校桌球團隊運動實證研究。國立台灣師範大學體育研究
  3. 林金杉(2002)。拔河運動教練領導行為與團隊凝聚力之相關研究。國立台灣體
  4. 究。國立台灣師範大學教育研究所博士論文。
  5. 邱旺璋(2002)。足球教練領導行為與團隊凝聚力之研究。輔仁大學體育學系碩
Times Cited (5) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林芳源(2009)。羽球教練領導行為與團隊凝聚力之研究。亞洲大學經營管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2009。1-85。
  2. 張秋萍(2009)。大專排球運動員目標取向與知覺教練領導行為之研究。亞洲大學經營管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2009。1-86。
  3. 洪美麗(2010)。足球教練家長式領導行為與團隊凝聚力之研究。亞洲大學休閒與遊憩管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2010。1-147。
  4. 葛晶珮(2011)。高中女子排球選手知覺教練交易領導、轉型領導與選手運動動機之相關研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2011。1-73。
  5. 陳雅惠(2011)。國中學生參與體育嘉年華活動的集體效能對團隊凝聚力之相關研究。亞洲大學休閒與遊憩管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2011。1-84。
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