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  • Theses

和平民族主義──從「終戰/敗戰紀念日」記憶探討戰後日本民族主義的內涵與轉變(1945~1972)

Pacifist Nationalism — Commemorations of August 15 and Postwar Japanese Nationalism (1945-1972)

Advisor : 汪宏倫 黃長玲

Abstracts


日本於1945年敗戰之後,在政府的主導以及民眾的厭戰情緒下,「和平國家」成為日本的國家發展方針,這也使得戰後日本的民族主義帶有濃厚的和平主義色彩。「敗戰」同時意味了舊日本的死亡與新日本的誕生,因此,日本人民的「敗戰」記憶作為戰後日本民族主義之文化根源,創造了人們「想像」日本作為一個「和平的共同體」的連帶感。 本論文依據安德森「想像的共同體」之理路,分析在每年「敗戰/終戰紀念日」──八月十五日──進行的大大小小的紀念儀式與活動,探討日本社會如何年復一年地實踐著這種帶有和平色彩的民族主義──「和平民族主義」。 為了研究戰後日本的「和平民族主義」,本論文延續Rogers Brubaker與汪宏倫研究民族主義之制度論取徑,將nation視為「被制度化的形式、實踐的範疇、偶發的事件」(Brubaker, 1996: 21),並加入了時間的面向,分析在1945年到1972年這段期間,每年八月十五日報章雜誌如何論述、展演著人們對共同體的想像,進而解釋戰後日本之「和平民族主義」興起、實踐、與變遷的歷史過程。 依「和平民族主義」論述內容的變化歷程,本文的分析主要可以分為兩大部分。第一部分是1945至1959年,「和平國家」之論述甫興,以民間紀念活動與原水爆禁止運動為基礎的和平民族主義(第三章)。第二部分是1960年至1972年,隨著日本進入高度經濟成長期,和平民族主義的內涵如何出現了分歧、辯論與變遷,其中彼此對抗的兩派主要勢力,是歌頌經濟發展的保守派與新左翼運動的進步派(第四章)。最後,在結論部分(第五章),本論文將指出戰後日本民族主義之案例研究,如何與安德森「想像的共同體」產生對話,提供當代民族主義研究更特殊而多元的研究視角。

Parallel abstracts


In 1945, Japan was defeated in World War II. Since then, government domination and public anti-war sentiment has turned a “Pacifist Nation” identity into Japan’s national ideal, making postwar Japanese nationalism “pacifist.” In fact, the collective memory of “defeat,” as the cultural origin of postwar Japanese nationalism, has two meanings: the death of old Japan and the birth of new Japan, which has created solidarity in people’s imagination of Japan as a “pacifist community.” Based on Benedict Anderson’s concept of an “Imagined Community,” this thesis analyzes how Japanese people “imagine” Japan as a Pacifist Nation at annual commemorations of “Defeat/War-End Memorial Day,” August 15. I show how popular media discourses have presented Japan as an “imagined Pacifist Nation” by surveying narratives in newspapers and political magazines published on August 15 from 1945 to 1972. I use the term “Pacifist Nationalism” to describe the empirical phenomenon of “imagining the community as a Pacifist Nation.” In order to study “Pacifist Nationalism” in postwar Japanese society, this thesis follows the institutionalist approach of Rogers Brubaker and Horng-Luen Wang, defining “nation” as “an institutionalized form, a category of practice, and a contingent event,” (Brubaker 1996) and further adding a temporal dimension. I analyze how discourses in newspapers and magazines of August 15 have represented people’s imagination of the community, Japan, as a Pacifist Nation, and thus explain the emergence, practice, and change of Pacifist Nationalism in Japan. The main analysis of this thesis can be divided into two parts: the first part (Chapter 3) describes how “Pacifist Nation” discourse emerged in 1945, and how it was practiced through annual rituals and anti-war movements in the 1950s; the second part (Chapter 4) discusses how discourses changed and were divided, rather than united, under rapid economic growth from 1960 to 1972, when two main forces, the conservative intellectuals and the New Left Movement activists, proved at odds. Finally, in the conclusion (Chapter 5), I state how the case study of postwar Japanese nationalism complements Anderson’s “Imagined Community,” providing a more diversified perspective in contemporary scholarship on nationalism.

References


汪宏倫,2001,〈制度脈絡、外部因素與台灣之「national question」的特殊性:一個理論與經驗的反省〉,《台灣社會學》,第1期,頁183-239。
────,2010,〈從《戰爭論》到《新歷史教科書》:試論日本當代民族主義的怨恨心態及其制度成因〉,《台灣社會學》,19: 147-202。
Samuels, R. J. & J. P. Boyd, 山岡万里子訳,2004,〈憲法九条にも九生あり?憲法論争の行方〉,《論座》,107: 174-183。東京:朝日新聞社。
────,2009,《戦後日本の平和教育の社会学的研究》。東京:学術出版会。
Billig, Michael. 1995. Banal Nationalism. London: Sage.

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