A Study of the Influence of a Learning Organization and Job Rotation on a High-Performing Team – In the Case of Company A
學習型組織 ； 工作輪調 ； 個人發展 ； 組織發展 ； 高績效團隊 ； Learning Organization ； Job Rotation ； Personal Development ； Organizational Development ； High-performing Team
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企業要具有競爭優勢，永續經營，需不斷地學習、改造與創新，才能面對多變的環境。彼得‧聖吉更強調個人學習與團隊學習需兼顧，以增進個人發展及組織發展效能，進而創造更好的高績效團隊，組織實施工作輪調就是學習的一種方式。一般企業實施輪調制度已久，其目的無非是使員工具備多項技能及知識，富有創造力和樂在工作；並使組織得以靈活運用人力，活化組織，培育通才。 經由過去文獻、問卷結果得知，現今很多企業實施工作輪調制度，但其評價均無一致的看法，無法明確問題癥結所在。其可能原因有三點：(1)產業特性不同。(2)制度方針不明確。(3)問卷設計不週延。為進一步釐清以上疑點，本研究以「個人發展」、「組織發展」兼具為目的，在相同產業背景與組織文化下，實施跨部門工作輪調以創造高績效團隊進行探索，用個案A公司為研究對象，其問卷題目經多位公司內部專家訪談後定案，確保題目完整性，以驗證理論與實務之一致性。 本研究針對相同產業不同部門，探討學習型組織、工作輪調與高績效團隊的相關性，問卷題目設計根據文獻和A公司專家訪談、擬定預試問卷初稿，並對預試問卷結果經效度、信度分析，作為正試問卷依據。最後，依預試問卷加以修正定稿，進行正式問卷調查。故此研究是經過質化、量化及問卷前測的嚴謹過程，得出研究結果。其結果亦將提供A公司管理者及人資單位參考，藉以了解輪調在學習型組織發展中的重要性。本研究以個案A公司的主管為對象，採抽樣問卷，共發出問卷300份，有效回收問卷226份，回收率約為75.33%。經敘述統計分析、信度分析、效度分析、T檢定、單因子變異數分析、Pearson相關分析、迴歸分析後，主要發現歸納如下： 1.學習型組織、工作輪調與高績效團隊三者具有正向顯著相關，顯示個人及團隊學習是同等重要，持續學習對個人發展及組織發展都是有利的，團隊學習愈好、進而提升組織發展，也相對提高個人學習意願，強化團隊績效，形成一個良性循環。 2.工作輪調以個人及組織發展為目的，透過周詳的訓練計劃，擴大成員學習領域及其管理技能提升，提升整體團隊績效。即為了提升組織團隊績效，可藉由工作輪調的方法達到學習的目的，對個人及團隊都有正面的意義。因此，工作輪調和持續學習是組織中創造高績效團隊的必要方法。 3.領導者是組織中扮演推動學習的模範生，持續的支持、教導、創新、合作，重視學習的價值，建置完整輪調制度，使「人才」在企業願景下擁有最大的發揮空間和舞台，為組織創造更好的團隊績效。
To gain the competitive advantage and for sustainable management, a company must constantly learn, transform, and innovate in the fast-changing environment. Peter Senge emphasizes that both personal learning and organizational learning must be taken care of in order to boost personal and organizational development performance and create a better and higher-performing team. The practice of job rotation in an organization is one way of learning and it has been in existence among general enterprises for a long time. The purpose of job rotation is to equip employees with multiple skills and knowledge so that they are creative and happy with their work and the organization can make the best use of its manpower, be vigorous, and develop all-round talents. Past literatures and questionnaire results tell us that the job rotation system is widely practiced among many enterprises nowadays. However, comments about its performance vary and no one can point out what is exactly wrong with the system. This may be contributable to three reasons, (1) different industrial characteristics, (2) undefined system policies, and (3) not well-organized questionnaire design. In order to clarify the three points in further depths, both “personal development” and “organizational development” are combined as the objective of this study and job rotation is practiced across departments under the same industrial background and organizational culture in order to explore the possibility of creating a high-performing team. The case study is focused on Company A. The questionnaire is finalized following interviews with many internal experts in the company in order to ensure integrity of questions and verify the consistency between theory and practice. In this study, the relationship between a learning organization, job rotation, and a high-performing team in different departments under the same industry is explored. Questions in the survey are designed with reference to literature and the first draft of the pre-questionnaire is produced through interviews with experts in Company A. Results of the pre-questionnaire are then analyzed to verify its validity and reliability in order to serve as the basis for the formal questionnaire. Finally, based on the pre-questionnaire, the questionnaire is modified and finalized and the formal survey is carried out. Therefore, this study goes through a rigid process that encompasses qualification, quantification, and pre-testing to obtain the final results. The results will also serve as the reference for managers and human resources in Company A in order for them to understand the importance of job rotation in the development of a learning organization. Supervisors in Company A are randomly surveyed in this study. A total of 300 copies of the questionnaire are handed out and 226 effective ones are collected. The recovery rate is around 75.33%. Major findings following descriptive statistical analysis, reliability analysis, validity analysis, T test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis, and regression analysis are as follows: 1.A learning organization, job rotation, and a high-performing team are positively and significantly correlated, indicating that personal learning and organizational learning are equally important and constant learning is good for individuals and the organization. Better team learning will boost organizational development and relatively enhance personal learning intentions, boost team performance, and encourage a virtuous cycle. 2.Personal and organizational development is the objective of job rotation. Through thorough training programs, the scope of employee learning is maximized and employee's management skills are enhanced. So does the overall team performance. Therefore, in order to boost organizational and team performance, job rotation is one way to achieve the goal. It carries positive meanings for both individuals and the organization. Therefore, job rotation and constant learning are prerequisites for the organization to create high-performing teams. 3.Leaders are role models that promote learning in organizations. Their continuous support, teaching, innovation, and cooperation, stress of the value of learning and establishment of a complete rotation system enables “talents” to have maximum room and stages for them to show their best side that meets corporate visions, contributing to better team performance in the organization.
社會科學 > 管理學