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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 1096 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. Bernard Berelson ,〈Content Analysis in Communication Research〉,Glencoe,Illinois,The Free Press, p.18,1952。
  2. 18. 黃德祥,《青少年發展與輔導精要》,考用出版,台北,2005年。
  3. 25. 顏崑陽先生於〈論「文體」與「文類」的涵義及其關係〉(《清華中文學報》第1期。2007年9月。頁1-67。
  4. 27. 王前龍,《國小道德實驗課程"愛國"德目教材中國家認同內涵之分析》,國立臺灣師範大學教育研究所博士論文,2000。
  5. 28. 王柏雄,《以有效教學策略促進課程銜接之個案研究--以七年級英語科為例》,國立臺灣師範大學教育學系碩士論文,2006。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 許育健(2012)。國語文教科書內容設計之研究~以臺灣、中國、香港、新加坡為例。臺灣師範大學教育學系學位論文。2012。1-336。
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