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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 79 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林建平(2007)。自律學習的理論與研究趨勢。國教新知,52(2),8-25。取自
  2. 曾憲政、張新仁、張德銳、許玉齡、馮莉雅、陳順和、劉秀慧(2007)。中小學教師專業發展評鑑規準之研究。國立新竹教育大學(教育部委託研究)
  3. 楊汶斌(2010)。國中教師教學風格、學生學習動機與英語科學習成就之關聯性研究─以桃園縣為例。中原大學,教育研究所碩士論文。
  4. 劉敏瑛(2008)。華語文教師跨文化課室經營之探討。國立臺灣師範大學,華語文教學研究所碩士論文。
  5. 黎瓊麗、莊筱玉、傅敏芳,(2006)。國小學童英語學習動機量表之編製。[應用外語系]期刊論文。取自。
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