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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 180 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳聰賢(1989)。社會及行為科學研究法。臺北市:東華。
  2. 李素菁(2000)。青少年家庭支持與幸福感之相關研究-以臺中市立國中生為例。未出版碩士論文,靜宜大學,臺中市。
  3. 李清榮(2005)。高雄市國小教師領導類型、班級氣氛與學習態度之研究。未出版碩士論文,國立高雄師範大學,高雄市。
  4. 李維靈(2005)。臺北地區大學戲劇社員參與戲劇活動之休閒涉入與休閒效益。第七屆休閒遊憩觀光學術研討會論文集:遊憩效益與預測篇(頁1-14)。南投縣:中華民國戶外遊憩學會。
  5. 李柏慧、劉淑燕(2003)。休閑活動與文化發展的探討。中華體育季刊,17(4),89-97。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 藍升蔚(2012)。國小八人制拔河選手參與動機、社會支持與運動成績表現之研究。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所在職碩士班學位論文。2012。1-97。
  2. 林佩蓉(2013)。高雄市軍訓教官休閒涉入對高中職學生休閒態度、休閒參與及學習績效之影響。樹德科技大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2013。1-0。
  3. 梁美玲(2017)。高中職觀光科學生人格特質、休閒參與與休閒效益之研究-以彰化縣某高職為例。朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系學位論文。2017。1-80。
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