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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 43 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李秀穗(民90)。運動團隊凝聚力。大專體育,52期,130-137。
  2. 吳慧卿(民90)。選手知覺教練領導行為、團隊衝突、團隊凝聚力及滿意度關係之實證研究。國立台灣師範大學研究所博士論文。
  3. 邱玉惠(民90)。運動員心理技能量表之編製。國立體育學院研究所碩士論文。
  4. 陳其昌(民82)。排球教練領導行為對團隊凝聚力的影響暨驗證運動情境領導理論之研究。國立體育學院研究所碩士論文。
  5. 張志成(民85)。運動團隊凝聚力之探討。大專體育,28期,111-117。
Times Cited (8) 〈TOP〉
  1. 游淑霞(2005)。理解式球類教學法對高中生合球學習效果之研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2005。1-167。
  2. 馬玉濱(2006)。教練領導行為與團隊衝突及團隊凝聚力之研究-以臺北市高中籃球校代表隊知覺為例。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所在職碩士班學位論文。2006。1-221。
  3. 鄭清金(2008)。公私立中等學校校長家長式領導與教師士氣關係之研究。政治大學學校行政碩士在職專班學位論文。2008。1-128。
  4. 朱桂芳(2009)。臺北縣國小校長領導行為與學校行政人員團隊凝聚力關係之研究。淡江大學教育政策與領導研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2009。1-140。
  5. 陳雅惠(2011)。國中學生參與體育嘉年華活動的集體效能對團隊凝聚力之相關研究。亞洲大學休閒與遊憩管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2011。1-84。
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