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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 116 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Akin,O.(1990).Necessary condition for expertise and creativity. Design studies,11(2):107-113.
  2. Akin,O. and C.Lin (1995).“Design Protocol data and novel design decisions.” D esign S tudie s 16 (#2, April):211-236.
  3. Chambers, D. & Reisberg, D. (1992). What an image depicts depends on what an image means, Cognitive Psychology, 24, 145-174.
  4. Candy, L., & Edmonds, E. (1996). Creative design of the Lotus bicycle: Implications for knowledge support systems research. Design Studies, 17(1), 71-90.
  5. Casakin, H. P. (2006). Assessing the use of metaphors in the design process. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 33(2), 253 -268.
Times Cited (22) 〈TOP〉
  1. 廖敏理(2013)。企業投資與分割:以一家族企業為例。成功大學財務金融研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2013。1-61。 
  2. 居乃台(2010)。工作價值觀、領導風格、個人特徵與組織公民行為之關聯性研究—以中國大陸企業員工為實證對象—。中原大學管理研究所學位論文。2010。1-148。 
  3. 楊世誠(2007)。主管-部屬相似性對垂直溝通行為的影響:組織沈默氣候的調節效果。中原大學心理學研究所學位論文。2007。1-124。 
  4. 陳明珠(2010)。教職員人格特質、工作滿足、組織承諾與組織忠誠度關係之研究-以國立台南護專為例。長榮大學經營管理研究所(博)學位論文。2010。1-122。 
  5. 趙悅伶(2015)。台灣公司治理之實際成效:以家族企業 、獨立董事、審計委員會為軸。臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文。2015。1-109。 
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